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Flashcards in Neurology Deck (90):
1

Patchy demyelination around axons

Multiple sclerosis

2

Difficulty raising arms to hold child post C-section

High spinal anaesthetic

3

Optic neuritis

Multiple sclerosis

4

Blurred vision worsening with heat

Multiple sclerosis

5

30-year old woman with trigeminal neuralgia

Multiple sclerosis

6

Numbness progressing to weakness after a viral infection

Guillain-Barre

7

Lower limb and pelvic floor weakness + anosmia

ACA stroke

8

Dementia with occipital hypoperfusion

Lewy body demenia

9

B-amyloid peptide aggregation and neurofibrillary tangles

Alzheimer's dementia

10

3Hz spike-and-wave pattern on EEG

Absence seizure

11

Seizure with high prolactin

Tonic-clonic

12

Jaw claudication

Temporal arteritis

13

Photosensitvity, N+V and aura

Migraine

14

Pill-rolling tremor/cogwheel/lead-pipe/shuffling gait/mask-like facies/small handwriting/soft voice

Parkinson's

15

Inability to voluntarily look down

Progressive supranuclear palsy

16

Low uptake in basal ganglia on fludeoxyglucose PET scan

Parkinson's

17

Xanthochromia

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

18

Bilateral vestibular schwanomma

Type 2 neurofibromatosis

19

Oligoclonal bands and IgG

MS

20

Chorea + dementia

Huntington's disease

21

Bitemporal heminaopia

Pituitary adenoma

22

Superior quadrantanopia

Temporal lobe lesion

23

Inferior quandrantanopia

Parietal lobe lesion

24

Triad of ataxia, incontinence and confusion

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

25

Triad of ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and confusion

Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency)

26

Triad of nystagmus, intention tremor and staccato/scanning speech

Charcot's triad (MS)

27

Kernig's sign

Meningitis (stiff neck)

28

Purpuric rash in meningitis

Meningococcal sepsis (Neisseria meningitidis)

29

Donald duck speech

Pseudobulbar palsy

30

Pupils that constrict to accommodation and not light

Argyll-Roberton pupils (syphilis, alcohol and diabetes)

31

Pseudo-pallisading (central necrotic)

Glioblastoma multiforme

32

Psamomma bodies, spindle cells

Meningioma

33

Chicken wire vascular appearance

Oligodendroglioma

34

Thunderclap headache

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

35

Biconvex collection on CT

Epidural haematoma

36

Headache associated with polymyalgia rheumatica

Temporal arteritis

37

S-100 stain

Schwannoma

38

Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia

Intranuclear ophthalmoplegia in MS (due to MLF)

39

Leg and buttock pain relieved by leaning forward

Neurogenic claudication

40

Sudden severe occipital headache, neck stiffness, confusion and vomiting. Lesser episode 3 weeks prior.

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

41

Polycystic kidney disease

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (Berry aneurysms)

42

Blurred vision + difficulty discriminating colours + pain on eye movement

Relative afferent pupillary defect (optic neuritis)

43

Impaired vision + objects look dull and indistinct + dull headache on the same side

Optic neuritis

44

Intermittent double vision and drooping eyelid worsening in the evenings

Fatiguable ptosis (myasthenia gravis)

45

Progressive right hemiparesis + tonic clonic seizure

Left frontal lobe tumour

46

Pleomorphic astrocytes with several areas of necrosis

GBM (ill-defined lesion expanding the entire corpus callosum, compressing the ventricles)

47

GFAP

GBM

48

Fluent aphagia, jargon speech, right homonymous hemianopia

Temporoparietal cortex stroke

49

Hearing loss + vertigo + tinnitus

Meniere's disease

3D's - deafness, dizziness and din

50

Hearing loss + vertigo + vesicular rash

Ramsay Hunt syndrome (type II)

51

Vertigo post-URTI

Vestibular neuronitis

52

Inability to sit still

Akathisia

53

Involuntary movements of face and jaw, long term anti-psychotics

Tardive dyskinesia

54

Loss of pain and temperature in a cape-like distribution

Syringomelia

55

Cafe au lait spots

Neurofibromatosis type I

56

Lisch nodules

Neurofibromatosis type I

57

Pes cavus

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

58

First management for temporal arteritis

Steroids (not temporal artery biopsy)

59

Pale optic discs

MS

60

Pallor and palpitations → blackout → flushing

Stokes-Adams attack

61

Social and sexual disinhibition

Frontal lobe lesion

62

Degeneration of the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen)

Huntington's disease

63

CN most commonly affected in PCA stroke

Occulomotor (CN III)

64

Blurred vision, delayed visual evoked responses and normal fundoscopy

Retrobulbar neuritis

65

IE + stroke

Mycotic aneurysm

66

Panda/racoon eyes

Basal skull fracture

67

Inverted champagne bottle legs

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

68

Ring-enhancing lesion in the brain

Abscess (toxoplasmosis) or malignancy

69

Panda eyes on CT brain

Toxoplasmosis

70

Common causes of peripheral neuropathy

DEBUT

  • Diabetes
  • Ethanol
  • B12
  • Uraemia
  • Thyroid (hypo)

71

Best investigation for brain tumour

MRI

72

Brainstem stroke with constricted pupils

Pontine

73

Brainstem stroke with unresponsive mid-dilated pupil

Midbrain

74

Stroke with neuropathic pain

Thalamic

75

DRUG SE: most common SE of levodopa

Nausea

76

DRUG SE: gum hypertrophy and hirsutism

Phenytoin

77

DRUG: treatment of acute glaucoma

Acetazolamide

78

DRUG: control of vomiting in Parkinson's

Domperidone

79

DRUG: first line in absence seizures

Ethosuximide

80

DRUG: treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's

Clozapine

81

DRUG: trigeminal neuralgia

Carbamazepine

82

DRUG SE: antiemetic causing Parkinsonism

Prochlorperazine

83

DRUG SE: bioplar drug causing diabetes insipidus

Lithium

84

DRUG SE: migraine treatment causing dystonia

Metoclopramide

85

DRUG SE: headache and hypertension after evening meal 

MAO inhibitor (cheese reaction)

86

DRUG SE: anti-epileptic causing raised liver enzymes

Valproate

87

DRUG SE: acute pancreatitis

Valproate

88

DRUG: prevents relapses in MS

Interferon-B

89

DRUG SE: peripheral neuropathy (7)

FISH MAP

  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Isoniazid
  • Statins
  • Heavy metals
  • Metronidazole
  • Amiodarone
  • Phenytoin

 

 

90

DRUG SE: hyponatraemia

Antidepressants (SSRIs, tricyclics)