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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (62)
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1

Inheritance of long QT syndrome

autosomal dominant!
homozygous = Jervell Lange-Neilson (assoc with sensorineural hearing loss)
heterozygous = Romano-Ward

2

Treatment of long QT

avoid exercise, beta-blockers

3

What is the axis on ECG of a child with an AVSD?

left-axis deviation

4

in what congenital heart disease would you see left axis deviation?

AVSD, small RV (tricuspid atresia), Noonan syndrome (no clear reason why...)

5

what are the signs on ECG of LV hypertrophy

Tall R waves in V6, deep S waves in V1

6

ECG signs of RV hypertrophy

Tall R waves in V1, deep S waves in V6, Q waves in V1, upright T waves in V1 (after day 5 of life - should be flipped until about age 9)

7

Palivizumab - what is it

monoclonal IgG antibody against RSV

8

recurrence rate of congenital heart disease

4% up to 10% (higher if left-sided)

9

Complications of Fontan

protein-losing enteropathy, plastic bronchitis

10

What cardiac patients need antibiotic prophylaxis?

those with a high risk lesion (Cyanotic, repaired with prosthetic material in last 6 months, persistent defects - leak) undergoing a high risk procedure (dental procedure, non-infected gut/GU procedure)

11

ECG findings - pericarditis

diffuse ST elevation, PR depression, T wave flattening eventually T wave inversion

12

Main cause of CHF - first week of life

- obstructions! hypoplastic left heart (d3-5), severe aortic stenosis, coarctation (d7-10)
- asphyxia
- uncontrolled tachycardia (SVT >24hrs)
- severe mitral/tricuspid regurgitation

13

Main cause of CHF - week 2-6 of life

Things that cause left to right shunting: VSD, AVSD, PDA

(NOT ASD!)

14

Main cause of CHF - older children

pump failure!
dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, tachycardia

15

3 signs of CHF in infants

tachycardia, tachypnea, hepatomegaly

16

Risk of recurrence of congenital heart disease (isolated case) in sib?

2-3%

17

CHD in Turner syndrome (name 3)

- coarctation of the aorta, bicuspid aortic valve, aortic stenosis

18

CHD in fetal alcohol syndrome (name 3)

VSD, ASD, TOF

19

CHD in VACTERL

ASD, VSD, PDA (65-85%)

20

CHD in Trisomy 13 (patau) - name > 3

PDA, VSD, ASD, valvular disease, coarctation of the aorta, complex defects

21

CHD in Trisomy 18

VSD, polyvalvular disease (~100%)

22

Duct dependent for pulmonary circulation CHD

- pulmonary atresia, critical pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary atresia with intact septum, TOF

23

Duct dependent for systemic circulation CHD

Severe aortic stenosis, interrupted aortic arch, hypoplastic left heart syndrome

24

CHD - duct required for "mixing"

TGA

25

Most common type of ASD? (primum, sinus venosus, secundum) and ECG finding

secondum, right anterior deviation on ECG

26

Most common congenital heart disease and CXR finding

VSD, 14-18%
CXR - increased pulmonary vasculature, cardiomegaly

27

Most common CHD in T21

AVSD

28

What is bicuspid aortic valve associated with?

5-8% also have coarcation

29

Noonan syndrome CHD (name 2)

pulmonary stenosis w/ dysplastic pulmonary valve, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

30

Alagille syndrome CHD

peripheral pulmonary stenosis