Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (189)
What is premature adrenarche?
Early activation of HPA axis, often seen in obese children. Typical onset 4-8 yrs. Mild growth spurt. May have mildly advanced bone age. Pubic hair, axillary hair, apocrine sweat.
What is premature thelarche?
Early breast development
Typically happens between birth to 2 yrs, most regress, no long term risks.
At what tanner stage does peak height velocity occur in males?
Tanner stage 4-5
When does peak height velocity occur in girls, relative to menarche?
growth spurt occurs before menses
Definition of precocious puberty
girls < 8 yrs, boys < 9 yrs
hormone pattern in primary gonadal failure
elevated LH/FSH, low estrogen/testosterone
pubic hair, acne, body odor but no thelarche
premature adrenarche due to secretion fo adrenal androgens (DHEA)
first sign of puberty in boys
what is pubarche?
pubic hair growth
what testicular volume indicates puberty?
4mL = 2.5 cm
what is DHEAS
an adrenally produced androgen
what is an intervention you can take to improve growth in Turner's syndrome?
incidence of Turner syndrome
diagnosis of type 1 diabetes - fasting
fasting blood glucose > 7 mmol
diagnosis of type 1 diabetes - random
random glucose > 11.1 mmol
most common CAH mutation
21-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency
micropenis in term infant
most common type of pediatric thyroid cancer
treatment of thyroid cancer
thyroidectomy, post-operative radio-ablation to remove any remaining tissue
what is the antibody in graves disease
thyrotropin receptor stimulating antibody
causes of hyperthyroidism
graves (thyrotropin receptor stimulating antibody), subacute thyroiditis, suppurative thyroiditis, toxic adenoma, exogenous thyroid hormone
syndromes associated with pheochromocytoma
VHL, MEN2, NF1
how to screen for cushing's disease
24 hour urinary free cortisol
definition of pathologic #s
2 or more long bone #s < 10 yrs, 3 or more long bone #s < 19 yrs, any vertebral compression # (loss of > 20% of vertebral height)
anterior pituitary hormones
"go find the adenoma please"
posterior pituitary hormones
steroids made by adrenal gland
zona glomerulosa - aldosterone
zona fasiculata - cortisol
zona reticularis - DHEA-S and androstenedione (pre-cursor to testosterone)
first sign of puberty in males
testicular enlargement (volume > 4mLs or size > 2.5cm)
first sign of puberty in females
breast bud formation