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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (189)
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1

What is premature adrenarche?

Early activation of HPA axis, often seen in obese children. Typical onset 4-8 yrs. Mild growth spurt. May have mildly advanced bone age. Pubic hair, axillary hair, apocrine sweat.

2

What is premature thelarche?

Early breast development
Typically happens between birth to 2 yrs, most regress, no long term risks.

3

At what tanner stage does peak height velocity occur in males?

Tanner stage 4-5

4

When does peak height velocity occur in girls, relative to menarche?

growth spurt occurs before menses

5

Definition of precocious puberty

girls < 8 yrs, boys < 9 yrs

6

hormone pattern in primary gonadal failure

elevated LH/FSH, low estrogen/testosterone

7

pubic hair, acne, body odor but no thelarche

premature adrenarche due to secretion fo adrenal androgens (DHEA)

8

first sign of puberty in boys

testicular growth

9

what is pubarche?

pubic hair growth

10

what testicular volume indicates puberty?

4mL = 2.5 cm

11

what is DHEAS

an adrenally produced androgen

12

what is an intervention you can take to improve growth in Turner's syndrome?

growth hormone

13

incidence of Turner syndrome

1/2000

14

diagnosis of type 1 diabetes - fasting

fasting blood glucose > 7 mmol

15

diagnosis of type 1 diabetes - random

random glucose > 11.1 mmol

16

most common CAH mutation

21-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency

17

micropenis in term infant

<2.5cm

18

most common type of pediatric thyroid cancer

papillary carcinoma

19

treatment of thyroid cancer

thyroidectomy, post-operative radio-ablation to remove any remaining tissue

20

what is the antibody in graves disease

thyrotropin receptor stimulating antibody

21

causes of hyperthyroidism

graves (thyrotropin receptor stimulating antibody), subacute thyroiditis, suppurative thyroiditis, toxic adenoma, exogenous thyroid hormone

22

syndromes associated with pheochromocytoma

VHL, MEN2, NF1

23

how to screen for cushing's disease

24 hour urinary free cortisol

24

definition of pathologic #s

2 or more long bone #s < 10 yrs, 3 or more long bone #s < 19 yrs, any vertebral compression # (loss of > 20% of vertebral height)

25

anterior pituitary hormones

TSH
LH
FSH
prolactin
GH
ACTH
"go find the adenoma please"

26

posterior pituitary hormones

ADH
oxytocin

27

steroids made by adrenal gland

zona glomerulosa - aldosterone

zona fasiculata - cortisol

zona reticularis - DHEA-S and androstenedione (pre-cursor to testosterone)

28

first sign of puberty in males

testicular enlargement (volume > 4mLs or size > 2.5cm)

29

first sign of puberty in females

breast bud formation

30

Definition of premature adrenarche

sexual hair < 8 yrs in girls, < 9 yrs in boys