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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (39)
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1

When should skin-to-skin occur after birth?

Babies should have uninterrupted skin-to-skin with their mothers immediately after birth or until after the first feed

2

How long should babies be breastfed?

Exclusively x 6 mos, then up to 2 yrs and beyond with the introduction of complementary foods

3

Are formula companies allowed to advertise?

no! as part of the international code of marketing breast-milk substitutes, there is no advertising of products to the public / no free samples to mom / can't idealize formula feeding (pictures)

4

In canada, how many babies are still breastfed at 6 mos?

approx 25%

5

Pacifiers - yes or no?

Hard to say
May decrease SIDS

Best to introduce after breastfeeding is established

The act of sucking on pacifier may be soothing to infant in NICU

6

Contraindications to breastfeeding

HIV positive

Receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy +/- radiation

Active TB

HSV on breast

Galactosemia (+/- PKU: should be on low phenylalanine formula)

7

What should you avoid doing while breastfeeding?

Drinking EtOH (passes freely into breastmilk)

Smoking

8

Nutrition issues frequently encountered in neurologically impaired children

GERD
Aspiration
Osteoporosis

9

How do you rehydrate someone with mild dehydration?

oral rehydration solution (50 mL/kg over 4 hrs)

replace ongoing losses

10

rehydration of someone with moderate dehydration?

oral rehydration solution (100 mL/kg over 4 hrs)

replace ongoing losses

11

how do you rehydrate someone with severe dehydration?

IV resuscitation (20 cc/kg x 1-3)

begin ORT when patient is stable

replace losses

12

What drinks are contraindicated in a patient with dehydration?

Plain water (can cause hyponatremia, hypoglycemia)

(carbonated beverage and fruit juices are discouraged - high carb, low electrolytes)

13

When do you need to supplement fluoride?

Drinking water contains < 0.3 ppm

Child does not brush BID

Child is high risk for caries

14

At what age would you start supplementing with fluoride (if needed)?

6 mos

15

What is the risk of too much fluoride?

Fluorosis (abnormal enamel development)

16

What fluoride level is a trade off between caries and fluorosis?

0.7 ppm

17

What should you recommend as the first complementary foods?

Iron-rich foods (cereal, meat)

18

By what age should a child have tried lumpy textures?

9 months

19

What kind of cup should a child use with the introduction of complementary foods?

open cup, with help

20

What are the recommendations for introducing cow's milk?

3.25% (homogenized) milk until 2 yrs

delay until 9-12 months of age

limit to 750 mL (25 ounces) per day

21

When can a child have honey?

> 1 yr

(increased risk of botulism < 1 yr)

22

When can you use BMI as a measurement tool?

2 yrs and up

(before that, use weight for height)

23

After what age is it abnormal to change growth percentiles on the WHO growth chart?

after age 3

24

What is a medication that can stimulate appetite?

Cyproheptadine

25

Bottle-fed infant with colic and concern for CMPA. What is one thing you could do?

Two week trial of hypoallergenic (extensively hydrolyzed formula)

26

Breast-fed infant with severe colic and concern for CMPA. What are two things you could suggest?

- Hypoallergenic diet (eliminate milk, egg, wheat and nut)

- Eliminate cow's milk protein from maternal diet x 2 weeks

27

Baby with congenital hypothyroidism taking a soy based formula. What should you do?

Monitor thyroxine levels closely, as the phytoestrogens can lower fT4 concentrations

28

What type of CMPA is most common? (IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated)

IgE mediated (60%)

(non-IgE mediated is 40%)

29

Child with CF on vitamins. Develops pseudotumour cerebrii. Why?

Hypervitaminosis A

30

What is pellagra?

niacin deficiency

photosensitive dermatitis
diarrhea
dementia