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Flashcards in Cardiology definitions Deck (12):
1

Fibrillation

Chaotic electrical and mechanical activity.

Caused because the pumping action of the affected chamber is lost.

2

Atrial fibrillation 

Irregularly irregular pulse

 

 

Reduces efficiency of the heart but does not cause a serious problem in the absence of other heart disease
 

3

Ventricular fibrillation 

results in complete loss of cardiac output and is fatal within minutes unless corrected (electrical defibrillation)

4

concentric hypertrophy

thickening of the wall but no increases in volume, normally seen in high bp or aortic stenosis (results in a stronger apex beat)

5

eccentric hypertrophy

where there is a thickening of the wall and an increase in volume due to regurgitation or volume overload (displaced apex beat).

6

Mitral stenosis

Causes: rheumatic fever

Pathophysiology: Narrowed valve reduces flow to LV in diastole, reduced stroke volume. Increased LA pressure causes hypertophy and dilation. Can increase RH pressure, leading to pulmonary hypertension and RH failure

Symptoms: associated with RH failure - dyspnoea, haemoptysis, cough, malar flush

Murmur: low rumbling early diastolic

Associated with atrial fibrillation, causes irregularly irregular pulse and palpitations

7

Mitral regurgitation

Causes: rheumatic fever, IHD, endocarditis, cardiomyopathy

Pathophysiology: Regurgitation causes an increase in left atrial pressure due to increased volume. Increases pulmonary venous pressure, results in pulmonary oedema >RHF. Can also cause LV hyertophy and failure due to increased volume in ventricle. Cardiac output reduced

Murmur: Pansystolic murmur, S3, forceful apex beat

Symptoms: palpitations, dyspnoea, fatigue

8

Aortic stenosis

Causes: congenital (bicuspid), rheumatic fever

Pathophysiology: LV outflow obstructed increases pressure and causing LV hypertrophy. Causes ischemia of myocaridum > consequent angina, arrhythmia, LV failure. 

Symptoms: Angina, Worse on exercise because CO cannot increase, Cardiac ischemia worsens. Dyspnoea, syncope

Signs: Ejection systolic murmur, slow rising carotid pulse, S3 sound. Prominent heaving apex, palpable thrill.

ECG: Large R wave (hypertrophy), ST depression/T inversion (ischemia) 

9

Aortic regurgitation

Causes: endocarditis, rheumatic fever, marfan's syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta

Pathophysiology: Reflux of blood into LV in diastole, causing LV hypertrophy. Diastolic BP falls and coronary perfusion decreased. Cardiac ischemia develops. 

Signs: diastolic murmur heard in tricuspid area in expiration. Forceful lateral apex beat, angina. ECG shows tall R waves and inverted T waves. 

10

Osler's node

Small, purple tender skin lesions in pads of fingers, toes, palms of hands or soles of feet, caused by immune complexes of infected micro-emboli
 

11

Janeway's lesions

Slightly raised but non tender haemorrhagic lesions seen in patients with bacterial endocarditis. Caused by septic emboli.
 

12

Name 4 conditions which cause atrial fibrillation

Hyperthyroidism

Ischaemic heart disease

Hypertension

Pulmonary embolism

Pneumonia

Excess alcohol

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