What are the advantages of contraception?
Decrease in unwanted pregnancy/offspring
What are the disadvantages of contraception?
Changes sexual habits
What are the four strategies used in contraception?
Prevention of ovulation
Prevention of spermiogenesis
Prevention of sperm/egg ineraction
Prevention of implantation
Name three contraceptive methods
Describe the rhythm method of contraception
Avoid intecourse for 3-4 days on either side of predicted ovulation. Ovum has a limited period of fertility therefore reduced change of sperm/egg interaction.
Period of fertility is assessed by measuring changes in basal body temperature and examining cervical mucus.
Benefits: Cheap, no side effects or medical contraindication, no religious or ethical issues.
Name three physiological forms of contraception
Coitus interruptus (ineffective)
How does lactation reduce fertility?
Regular breastfeeding is regulated by prolactin which stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk.
High levels of prolactin supresses the HPO axis (GnRH, oestrogen)
Name three barrier methods of contraception
Diaphragm and cervical cap
Name three hormonal methods of contraception
Progesterone only pills
Name three benefits of the combination pill
Decreases ovarian cysts/ovarian cancer
Decrease in endometrial cancer
Decrease in ectopic pregnancy
What are the adverse effects of oral contraceptives?
Loss of libido
How does the combination pill reduce fertility?
Contains oestrogen and porgesterone
Oestrogen suppresses gonadotrophins, preventing follicular development, ovulation and luteinization
Progesterone affects cervical mucus, making it more acidic, reduces tubal motility.
What is the mini-pill?
Progesterone-only pills (normally used in women who have contraindicationd for combination pill)
Affects cervical mucus and endometrium, requires high compliance (need to be taken every 24hrs)
Few side effects due to low dose of progesterone