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Flashcards in Common Malignancies Deck (14):
1

Classification of cervical neoplasia

CIN I, mild dysplasia

CIN II moderate dysplasia - progressive atypia and expansion of the immature basal cells

CIN III severe dysplasia - diffuse atypia, loss of maturation, and expansion of the immature basal cells 

A image thumb
2

Screening for colorectal cancer?

Faecal Occult Blood - Carcino-embryonic antigen, Alpha Foetoprotein 


Colonoscopy - polyps, ulcers, 

3

Cancers commonly screened

Cervix - cytology from smear

Breast - mammography/USS

Large intestine - FOB, colonscopy

Prostate - blood test for PSA

4

How can prognosis of cancer be improved? (population)

Early detection & screening programmes
Identify at risk groups
Tumour profiling
New targeted chemotherapeutic agents

5

Chemotheraphy for N-H lymphoma

Cyclophosphamide -  cross links DNA


Hydroxydaunorubicin - inserts between DNA bases


Oncovin - prevents cell duplication 


Prednisolone - corticosteroids

6

Treatment of cancer

Surgery

Radiotherapy

Chemotherapy

Hormone therapy

Some - vaccination, mAb

7

Compare different types of treatment for cancer

Surgery: invasive, removed tumor cells, depends on staging (size/invasion/nodes/margins)

Radiotherapy: Produces free radicals which cause DNA damage. Cancer cells have a high proliferation rate and poor repair mechanisms, therfore damage kills cells. Solid tumours less responsive due to low O2

Chemotherapy: affects tumour cells in cycle, disrupts DNA synthesis/cell division or inhibits nucleic acid synthesis. Also affects rapidly dividing cells e.g. BM, GIT

Hormone therapy: mAbs specific to overexpressed receptors, hormone receptor antagonists

Vaccines: HPV

8

Give 5 examples of tumor markers

Alpha fetoprotein - hepatocellular carcinoma, germ cell tumours

Carcinoembryonic antigen - GI neoplasia

hCG- trophoblastic tumour, germ cell tumours

thyroglobulin - thyroid cancer (pappillary/follicular)

Hormones - endocrine tumours/paraneoplastic

Immnoglobulins - myeloma/lymphoma

9

What are tumor markers?

Products liberated from tumour into blood stream

Help with determining response to therapy
Disease monitoring
Diagnosis

10

Nottingham prognostic index

Used for assessing breast cancer

size

stage

grade

11

3 Most common caners in men/women

Male: 
Lung
Prostate
Colorectal

Female:
Breast
Lung
Colorectal

12

Factors that can be used to predict tumour behaviour (also helps prognosis)

Size of tumour
Node status
Distant metastasis
Staging
Grade
Receptors/Molecular alterations

13

Genetic events that lead to the development of cancer

Point mutations: abnormally functioning product/inactive tumor supressor (ras, EGFR)

Gene amplification: excess production of oncogene (Her-2)

Chromosomal arrangement: inappropriate promoter activity, novel product (CM leukemia, Burkitts)

Genes involved have a role in DNA repair, apoptosis, replication, angiogenesis, local invasion

14

Staging of hodgkins and NHL

I one group of nodes involved

II two separate groups, same side of diaphragm

III nodes involved both sides of diaphragm

IV bone marrow, lung, other sites


A  no symptoms
B fever, weight loss, night sweats

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