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Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (16):
1

Define tumour

Swelling

2

Define neoplasm

Abnormal growth of cells which persists after the initiating stimulus has been removed (opposite of hyperplasia).

Caused by cell growth which is not under control of normal regulatory mechanisms

3

Benign neoplasm

Cells grow as a compact mass and remain at their site of origin

4

Malignant neoplasm

Arise when growth of cells is uncontrolled. Cells spread into the surrounding tissue and can spread to distant sites via the blood.

5

Define cancer

A malignant growth

6

Name 4 benign connective tissue neoplasms

Smooth muscle: Leiomyoma
Fibrous tissue: Fibroma
Bone: Osteoma
Cartilage: Chondroma
Fat: Lipoma
Nerve: Neurofibroma

7

Sarcoma

Malignant connective tissue neoplasm

8

Papilloma

Benign epithelial neoplasm of squamous and transitional epithelium

9

Adenoma

Glandular epithelium

10

Carcinoma

Malignant epithelial neoplasms

e.g. Skin: squamous cell carcinoma. Bowel: adenocarcinoma

11

State three differences in the behaviour of benign and malignant tumors

Benign:
No invasion
No metastasis
Retain function
Variable growth rate, often low

Malignant:
Invade
Metastasise
Lose function
Variable growth rate, may be high

12

Name two macroscopic differences between benign and malignant tumours

Benign:
Capsule
Well defined edge

Malignant:
Ill-defined margin
Haemorrhage
Necrosis

13

Name two microscopic differences that are seen in benign and malignant tumours

Benign:
Nuclear variation in size, chromasia and shape minimal
Low mitotic count, normal mitoses
Retention of specialisation
Structural differentiation retained
Organised
Expansile cohesive growth


Malignant:
Nuclear variation in size, chromasia and shape minimal to marked, often variable
Low to high mitotic count, abnormal mitoses
Loss of specialization
Structural differentiation shows wide range of changes
Not organised
Local invasion beyond normal boundaries

14

What are the essential alterations required for malignancy?

Self Sufficiency in the absence of Growth Signals
Insensitivity to Negative Growth Signals
Defects in DNA Repair
Evasion of Apoptosis
Limitless Replicative Potential
Sustained Angiogenesis
Ability to Invade and Metastasise

15

Dysplasia

Premalignant condition with increased cell growth, cellular atypia and altered differentiation

16

In-situ malignancy

Epithelial neoplasm with features of malignancy:
altered cell growth, cytological atypia, altered differentiation

but no invasion through basement membrane

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