Lower Limb Flashcards Preview

Semester 2 > Lower Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower Limb Deck (24):
1

Nerve root supply to hamstrings


L5, S1, S2

2


Nerve root supply to gastrocnemius and soleus


S1, S2

3


Nerve roots to deep flexor muscles of the thigh


S1, S2

4

Nerve root to tibialis posterior and popliteus

L4, L5

5


Nerve root to intrinsic muscles of the feet


S2, S3

6


Nerve root to plantar cutaneous nerves


L4, L5, S1

7

Roots of the sciatic nerve


L4 - S3

8

What are the cutaneous nerve areas?

Q image thumb

A image thumb
9

What parts of the hip are palpable?


Iliac crest

ASIS

PSIS

Ischial spine

Ischial tuberosity

Pubic tubercle

10

Ligaments of the hip joint


Iliofemoral

Pubofemoral

Ischiofemoral


Formed from thickenings of the joint capsule which wrap around the joint from posterior to anterior. This limits extension of the hip and stabilises the trunk

11

Common complication of intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head

Circumflex arteries surround the femoral neck and  pass through the fibres of the joint capsule to the femoral head. Intracapsular fractures can disrupt blood supply, meaning that the only blood supplies to the head of the femur is from a small artery in the ligament of the femoral head.

Lack of blood supply causes necrosis.

12

Valgus

Distal part of the bone directed away from the midline

Increase in joint angle 

13

Varus

Distal part of bone directed toward the midline

Decrease in joint angel

14

Iliotibial tract

Lateral thickening of fascia lata (deep fascia of the thigh)

Acts as an attachment point for muscles

Asissts in knee extension and staability

Saphenous veins run superficial to the fascia

15

Anterior compartment of the thigh

Produces hip flexion and extension of the knee

Innervated by the femoral nerve (L2-L4)

Blood supplied by femoral artery

16

Medial compartment of the thigh

Produces adduction of the hip

Innervated by the obturator nerve (L2-L4)

Supplied by the obturator artery

17

Posterior compartment

Produces extension of the hip, flexion of the knee, rotation of the leg. 

Innervated by the sciatic nerve (L4-S3) - tibial division (L5,S1)

Blood supplied by branches of profunda femorisa

18

Name four structures that drain in inguinal lymph nodes


Lower limb
Perineal region
Penis
Lower anal canal
Lower vagina
Anterior labia majora / scrotal skin

19

Functions of menisci in the knee

Increases contact area

Improves weight bearing

Acts as shock absorbers

Participate in locking mechanism of the knee

20

5 nerves that supply the foot

Deep fibular nerve

Tibial nerve

Superficial fibular nerve

Sural nerve

Saphenous nerve

21

Femoral canal

Fascial compartment that contains lymph cessels and lymph nodes

 

22

Femoral sheath

Fascia forms a femoral sheath around the femoral vessels

Femoral nerve lies outside the femoral sheath, deep to iliac fascia

Femoral artery, vein and lymphatics are inside the fasia (lymphatics sit in the femoral canal, artery and vein are in the sheath)

23

Lumbar plexus

Lies in the posterior part of psoas major 

Composed of anterior rami of L1-L4 nerves

 

Iliohypogastric L1
Ilioinguinal  L1
Genitofemoral L1/L2
Lateral cutanous nerve of the thigh L2/L3
Femoral nerve (L2-L4)
Obturator nerve (L2-L4)
(Lumbosacral trunk)

24

Sacral plexus nerves

Superior gluteal  (L4-S1)

Sciatic (L4-S3)

Inferior gluteal (L5-S2)

Nerve to piriformis S1/S2

Nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus (L4-S1)
Nerve to obturator internus and superior gemellus (L5-S2)

Pudendal (S2-S4)

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