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Flashcards in Cardioloy Review Deck (175)
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1

What side effect might make a patient stop taking an ACEI?

Cough

2

Define orthostatic hypotension.

A drop in systolic blood pressure of >20 mmhg when standing up.

3

You feel a pulse that seems to be vibrating. What term do you use to describe it?

Thrill

4

What are three things in your differential if you have a paradoxical pulse?

Cardiac tamponade, pericarditis and obstructive lung disease

5

On palpation, what size is normal for the aorta?

Less than 3 cm

6

A fixed or consistent split S2 should make you think of what diagnosis?

Atrial septal defect

7

A pathologic S3 is most commonly associated with what diagnosis?

CHF

8

If you hear a midsystolic click you should immediately be thinking about what diagnosis?

Mitral valve prolapse

9

An opening snap on auscultation of the heart should make you think of what diagnosis?

Mitral stenosis

10

A continuous murmur most likely involves what area of the heart?

It is most likely a septal defect.

11

You hear a continuous machine like murmur. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

12

List three medications which may be used for pharmacological stress test.

Adenosine, dobutamine, dipyridamole and persantine.

13

What is the gold standard for diagnosing coronary artery disease?

Cardiac catheterization

14

Define stage 1 hypertension according to JNC 7.

Systolic pressure of 140-159 and diastolic of 90-99.

15

What is the treatment goal for a diabetic with hypertension?

130/80

16

What is the most common cause of secondary hypertension?

Chronic kidney disease

17

No matter what medications you use you are having trouble keeping a patient's blood pressure under control. You also notice hyperpigmented skin and truncal obesity. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Cushing's disease

18

List three signs or symptoms which will likely be included in a description of a patient with a pheochromocytoma?

Thin, diaphoretic, tachycardic, agitated and hypertensive

19

You have a patient with diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. While waiting for surgery should you use an alpha blocker or a beta blocker?

Alpha blocker. You should never use a pure beta blocker.

20

A young boy comes into your office. He has elevated blood pressure when taken in his arm, but no palpable femoral pulse. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Coarctation of the aorta

21

According to the CDC what is the range for a normal BMI?

18.5-24.9

22

What is the first line medical treatment for stage 1 hypertension?

Thiazide diuretic

23

After a thiazide diuretic what medication should you start in a hypertensive patient who also has diabetes?

An ACEI or an ARB

24

Following a myocardial infarction what medication should you be using to treat hypertension?

Beta blocker

25

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea should make you think of what diagnosis?

CHF

26

What is the most common cause of CHF?

Coronary artery disease

27

What ejection fraction is typical for a patient with CHF?

35-40%

28

What is the most likely diagnosis for a young man who experiences sudden death while playing sports?

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

29

Batwing vessels or Kerley B lines on a chest x-ray should make you think of what diagnosis?

CHF

30

A beta natriuretic peptide below what level rules out CHF?

< 100