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Flashcards in Genitourinary Review Deck (66)
1

What is the most common type of kidney stone?

Calcium makes up 85% of kidney stones.

2

What is the most specific imaging modality for diagnosing kidney stones?

CT

3

Will a spermatocele transillumniate?

Yes

4

A kidney stone of less than what size will likely pass on its own?

Less than 5 mm

5

List three possible treatments for stress incontinence in women.

Kegels, estrogen therapy, surgical placement of a urethral sling

6

A 65 year old male presents with frequency. On digital rectal exam you feel an elastic moderately enlarged prostate. What is the most likely diagnosis?

BPH

7

A PSA above what level should start to make you concerned?

>4.0

8

Give two major risk factors for erectile dysfunction

Diabetes, hypertension, depression, coronary artery disease

9

List one major risk factor for bladder cancer?

Smoking

10

Define paraphimosis

Foreskin is retracted and cannot be reduced.

11

Which problem is an emergency phimosis or paraphimosis?

Paraphimosis

12

What is the name of the condition that involves fibrous scar tissue in the penis causing a curvature of the erect penis?

Peyronie's disease

13

Both testicles should be descended by what age?

3 months

14

Feeling a bag of worms in the scrotum should make you think of what diagnosis?

Varicocele

15

A fluid filled painless mass found in the scrotum which transilluminates should make you think of what diagnosis?

Hydrocele

16

What is the first line treatment for a varicocele?

Watchful waiting unless there is a question of fertility.

17

Name the sign which is defined as decreased pain with scrotal elevation?

Prehn's sign

18

Maltese crosses in the urine should make you think of what diagnosis?

Nephrotic syndrome

19

What is the imaging study of choice if you suspect bladder cancer?

Cystoscopy and biopsy

20

What is the most likely diagnosis for a free floating, painless, cystic mass found posterior and superior to the testis?

Spermatocele

21

What age range is typically associated with testicular torsion?

10-20 years old

22

Where is the epididymis found?

It is found at the posterior upper pole.

23

What is the best imaging to rule out testicular torsion?

Doppler U/S for decreased blood flow to the testes.

24

What are the two most common causes of epididymitis?

Neisseria gonorrhea and chlamydia

25

What medicaton classes are prescribed in order to help prevent chronic renal failure in diabetic patients?

ACEIs or ARBs

26

Will epididymitis feel better with scrotal elevation?

Yes

27

What is the normal level of serum bicarbonate (HCO3)?

24 mEq/Liter

28

What is the treatment for epididymitis?

Ceftriaxone and doxycycline

29

What is the first line antibiotic treatment for cystitis?

Bactrim

30

What is the most common organism that causes a bladder infection?

E. coli

31

Tenderness at the costovertebral angle should make you think of what diagnosis?

Pyelonephritis

32

What is the condition where the urethral meatus is not at the tip of the penis?

Hypospadias and in far fewer cases epispadias.

33

What is the most common organism responsible for prostatitis?

E. coli

34

What is the first line antibiotic for prostatitis?

Bactrim 4-6 weeks

35

List two risk factors for prostate cancer.

Advancing age, African American, positive family history, high fat diet.

36

What might you feel on a digital rectal exam of a patient with prostate cancer?

Enlarged prostate, hard nodules within the prostate.

37

Define priapism

Painful persistent erection.

38

A prostate biopsy consists of how many samples?

6 to 12

39

Painless hematuria should make you think of what diagnosis?

Bladder cancer

40

What is the most common bladder cancer?

Transitional cell cancer

41

Define phimosis.

Foreskin can not be retracted.

42

Name the condition in which the head of the penis curves downward or upward, at the junction of the head and shaft of the penis. (Hint: It is often associated with hypospadias.)

Chordee

43

How do you treat urethritis?

Ceftriaxone and doxycycline

44

A 3 year old boy presents with hematuria and a painless palpable abdominal mass. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Wilms tumor

45

List three possible causes of prerenal renal failure.

CHF, severe dehydration, hemorrhage.

46

What is the most common cause of postrenal renal failure?

BPH, postrenal renal failure is secondary to an outflow obstruction.

47

Muddy brown sediment in the urine should make you think of what diagnosis?

Acute tubular necrosis

48

Tea colored urine with red cell casts should make you think of what diagnosis?

Glomerulonephritis

49

What are the two most common predisposing factors in the development of chronic renal failure?

HTN and DM

50

A sponge like prostate on digital rectal exam should make you think of what diagnosis?

Prostatitis, but be careful. You can cause sepsis with a digital rectal exam.

51

Will serum potassium be decreased or elevated in renal failure?

Elevated

52

A urine protein of >3.5 grams/day should make you think of what diagnosis?

Nephrotic syndrome

53

What hereditary pattern does polycystic kidney disease follow?

Autosomal dominant

54

What is the normal pH of the blood?

7.35-7.45

55

What is the most accurate way to diagnose urethritis?

Urine PCR

56

What is considered a normal PCO2?

40mmHG

57

An ABG shows a pH of 7.2, a bicarb of 25 and a PCO2 of 50. Is this respiratory or metabolic acidosis?

Respiratory - CO2 is elevated.

58

White blood cell casts should make you think of what diagnosis?

Pyelonephritis

59

What area of the prostate is affected by BPH?

The transitional zone

60

What area of the prostate is the primary site for prostate cancer?

The peripheral zone

61

An involuntary loss of urine during coughing or laughing is what type of incontinence?

Stress incontinence

62

A patient who has normal bladder function, but can not get to the bathroom has what type of incontinence?

Functional incontinence

63

What type of incontinence is often associated with BPH?

Over.ow incontinence, the bladder cannot empty suf.ciently.

64

At what age do you begin screening patients for prostate cancer? What two tests are used?

At age 50 an annual digital rectal exam and a PSA are recommended.

65

Often caused by chlamydia what is the syndrome characterized by urethritis (or cervicitis), arthritis and conjuctivitis?

Reiter's syndrome

66

What is the most common type of testicular cancer?

Nonseminoma