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Flashcards in Genitourinary Review Deck (66)
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1
Q

What is the most common type of kidney stone?

A

Calcium makes up 85% of kidney stones.

2
Q

What is the most specific imaging modality for diagnosing kidney stones?

A

CT

3
Q

Will a spermatocele transillumniate?

A

Yes

4
Q

A kidney stone of less than what size will likely pass on its own?

A

Less than 5 mm

5
Q

List three possible treatments for stress incontinence in women.

A

Kegels, estrogen therapy, surgical placement of a urethral sling

6
Q

A 65 year old male presents with frequency. On digital rectal exam you feel an elastic moderately enlarged prostate. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

BPH

7
Q

A PSA above what level should start to make you concerned?

A

> 4.0

8
Q

Give two major risk factors for erectile dysfunction

A

Diabetes, hypertension, depression, coronary artery disease

9
Q

List one major risk factor for bladder cancer?

A

Smoking

10
Q

Define paraphimosis

A

Foreskin is retracted and cannot be reduced.

11
Q

Which problem is an emergency phimosis or paraphimosis?

A

Paraphimosis

12
Q

What is the name of the condition that involves fibrous scar tissue in the penis causing a curvature of the erect penis?

A

Peyronie’s disease

13
Q

Both testicles should be descended by what age?

A

3 months

14
Q

Feeling a bag of worms in the scrotum should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Varicocele

15
Q

A fluid filled painless mass found in the scrotum which transilluminates should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Hydrocele

16
Q

What is the first line treatment for a varicocele?

A

Watchful waiting unless there is a question of fertility.

17
Q

Name the sign which is defined as decreased pain with scrotal elevation?

A

Prehn’s sign

18
Q

Maltese crosses in the urine should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Nephrotic syndrome

19
Q

What is the imaging study of choice if you suspect bladder cancer?

A

Cystoscopy and biopsy

20
Q

What is the most likely diagnosis for a free floating, painless, cystic mass found posterior and superior to the testis?

A

Spermatocele

21
Q

What age range is typically associated with testicular torsion?

A

10-20 years old

22
Q

Where is the epididymis found?

A

It is found at the posterior upper pole.

23
Q

What is the best imaging to rule out testicular torsion?

A

Doppler U/S for decreased blood flow to the testes.

24
Q

What are the two most common causes of epididymitis?

A

Neisseria gonorrhea and chlamydia

25
Q

What medicaton classes are prescribed in order to help prevent chronic renal failure in diabetic patients?

A

ACEIs or ARBs

26
Q

Will epididymitis feel better with scrotal elevation?

A

Yes

27
Q

What is the normal level of serum bicarbonate (HCO3)?

A

24 mEq/Liter

28
Q

What is the treatment for epididymitis?

A

Ceftriaxone and doxycycline

29
Q

What is the first line antibiotic treatment for cystitis?

A

Bactrim

30
Q

What is the most common organism that causes a bladder infection?

A

E. coli

31
Q

Tenderness at the costovertebral angle should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Pyelonephritis

32
Q

What is the condition where the urethral meatus is not at the tip of the penis?

A

Hypospadias and in far fewer cases epispadias.

33
Q

What is the most common organism responsible for prostatitis?

A

E. coli

34
Q

What is the first line antibiotic for prostatitis?

A

Bactrim 4-6 weeks

35
Q

List two risk factors for prostate cancer.

A

Advancing age, African American, positive family history, high fat diet.

36
Q

What might you feel on a digital rectal exam of a patient with prostate cancer?

A

Enlarged prostate, hard nodules within the prostate.

37
Q

Define priapism

A

Painful persistent erection.

38
Q

A prostate biopsy consists of how many samples?

A

6 to 12

39
Q

Painless hematuria should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Bladder cancer

40
Q

What is the most common bladder cancer?

A

Transitional cell cancer

41
Q

Define phimosis.

A

Foreskin can not be retracted.

42
Q

Name the condition in which the head of the penis curves downward or upward, at the junction of the head and shaft of the penis. (Hint: It is often associated with hypospadias.)

A

Chordee

43
Q

How do you treat urethritis?

A

Ceftriaxone and doxycycline

44
Q

A 3 year old boy presents with hematuria and a painless palpable abdominal mass. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Wilms tumor

45
Q

List three possible causes of prerenal renal failure.

A

CHF, severe dehydration, hemorrhage.

46
Q

What is the most common cause of postrenal renal failure?

A

BPH, postrenal renal failure is secondary to an outflow obstruction.

47
Q

Muddy brown sediment in the urine should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Acute tubular necrosis

48
Q

Tea colored urine with red cell casts should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Glomerulonephritis

49
Q

What are the two most common predisposing factors in the development of chronic renal failure?

A

HTN and DM

50
Q

A sponge like prostate on digital rectal exam should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Prostatitis, but be careful. You can cause sepsis with a digital rectal exam.

51
Q

Will serum potassium be decreased or elevated in renal failure?

A

Elevated

52
Q

A urine protein of >3.5 grams/day should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Nephrotic syndrome

53
Q

What hereditary pattern does polycystic kidney disease follow?

A

Autosomal dominant

54
Q

What is the normal pH of the blood?

A

7.35-7.45

55
Q

What is the most accurate way to diagnose urethritis?

A

Urine PCR

56
Q

What is considered a normal PCO2?

A

40mmHG

57
Q

An ABG shows a pH of 7.2, a bicarb of 25 and a PCO2 of 50. Is this respiratory or metabolic acidosis?

A

Respiratory - CO2 is elevated.

58
Q

White blood cell casts should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Pyelonephritis

59
Q

What area of the prostate is affected by BPH?

A

The transitional zone

60
Q

What area of the prostate is the primary site for prostate cancer?

A

The peripheral zone

61
Q

An involuntary loss of urine during coughing or laughing is what type of incontinence?

A

Stress incontinence

62
Q

A patient who has normal bladder function, but can not get to the bathroom has what type of incontinence?

A

Functional incontinence

63
Q

What type of incontinence is often associated with BPH?

A

Over.ow incontinence, the bladder cannot empty suf.ciently.

64
Q

At what age do you begin screening patients for prostate cancer? What two tests are used?

A

At age 50 an annual digital rectal exam and a PSA are recommended.

65
Q

Often caused by chlamydia what is the syndrome characterized by urethritis (or cervicitis), arthritis and conjuctivitis?

A

Reiter’s syndrome

66
Q

What is the most common type of testicular cancer?

A

Nonseminoma