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Flashcards in Pediatric Review Deck (64)
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1

German measles is also known as what disease?

Rubella

2

Bruises may be purple, green, yellow and brown. How many days old is a yellow bruise?

Purple day 1-5, Green day 5-7, Yellow 7-10, Brown 10-14.

3

Pain with movement of the pinna or tragus should make you think of what diagnosis?

Otitis externa

4

What is the first line treatment for pertussis?

Erythromycin

5

By what age should a child be able to hold up her head?

3 months

6

A salter harris type I fracture affects what area of the bone?

Only the physis (growth plate).

7

By what age should a child be able to sit up?

6 months

8

An overweight 15 year old boy with a limp presents to your office complaining of knee pain. There is no history of trauma. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

9

A premature infant with hyaline membrane disease will have what appearance on CXR?

Bilateral atelectasis or ground glass appearance.

10

Atypical or walking pneumonia is caused by what pathogen?

Mycoplasma

11

What antibiotic is the first line treatment for mycoplasma pneumonia?

A macrolide (azithromycin or erythromycin).

12

A patient is having seizures along with a mouse like odor from the urine. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Phenylketonuria

13

The description of a dew drop on a rose petal should make you think of what diagnosis?

Chickenpox

14

Pale and boggy nasal mucosa should make you think of what diagnosis?

Allergic rhinitis

15

List the five major Jones criteria for diagnosing rheumatic fever.

Polyarthritis, carditis, subcuticular nodes, erythema marginatum, chorea

16

Describe erythema marginatum.

Pink rings on the trunk and inner surfaces of the limbs.

17

A child with bulky greasy stool should make you think of what diagnosis?

Cystic fibrosis

18

At what age should an infant begin cooing?

2 months

19

What is the most common cause of an upper respiratory tract infection?

Rhinovirus

20

Koplik spots are clusters of white clustered lesions on the buccal mucosa. What virus are they pathognomonic for?

Measles/Rubeola

21

What is the first line antibiotic for otitis media?

Amoxicillin

22

How do you treat a patient with respiratory syncytial virus?

Albuterol, steroids and fluids

23

A child presents with painful ulcers in his mouth. On physical exam you find more of the same type of ulcers on his feet and hands. What virus is most likely causing these symptoms?

Coxsackie virus

24

What is the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis?

Sweat chloride test

25

By what age should a child be able to walk?

12 months

26

If you believe there may be a foreign body obstructing a child's breathing what type of CXR should you order?

Expiratory view looking for hyperinflation due to air trapping.

27

What is the medical term for lazy eye?

Amblyopia

28

A patient presents with a staccato cough but no fever. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Chlamydia pneumoniae

29

What is the most serious complication of Kawasaki syndrome?

Aortic Aneurysm

30

A musical vibratory murmur best heard at the apex in a child should make you think of what diagnosis?

Still's murmur

31

A palpable olive shaped epigastric mass in a one month old should make you think of what diagnosis?

Pyloric stenosis

32

At what age should a child be able to use a spoon and stack 3-4 blocks?

18 months

33

What is the x-ray finding that supports diagnosis of a slipped capital femoral epiphysis?

Ice cream falling of the cone.

34

Which viral exanthem often has conjunctivitis as one of it's symptoms?

Measles/Rubeola

35

What is the most common congenital heart defect?

Ventricular septal defect

36

A boot shaped heart on CXR should make you think of what diagnosis?

Tetralogy of Fallot

37

During a physical exam of a child, you feel a tubular or sausage shaped mass. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Intussusception

38

What is the treatment for a volvulus in a child?

Barium enema

39

By what age should a child be able to roll over?

4 months

40

What is pertussis more commonly referred to as?

Whooping cough

41

Which heart valve is most associated with rheumatic fever?

Mitral

42

You hear a loud harsh holosystolic murmur in a child. It is heard best at the LLSB. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Ventricular septal defect

43

A child presents with paroxysmal abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Intussusception

44

At what age should a child begin to feed himself?

6 months

45

Currant jelly stool should make you think of what diagnosis?

Intussusception

46

Is an upper respiratory infection which includes hoarseness most likely bacterial or viral?

Viral

47

Describe Barlow's test.

Adduct and internal rotation of the hips.

48

A CXR finding of notched ribs in a child should make you think of what diagnosis?

Coarctation of the aorta

49

How long should you wait for a swallowed marble to pass through the body before considering surgery?

24 hours

50

A four year old boy presents between October and March with wheezing, coughing, a runny nose and increased respiratory rate. What is the most likely pathogen?

Respiratory syncytial virus

51

Describe the pattern of weight gain in an infant over the following time periods: week one, 6 months, 12 months, 3 years old and 4 years old.

Newborns lose 10% of their birth weight initially but are back to birth weight at 10 days, 6m = 2x birth weight, 12m = 3x birthweight,

52

3 y/o= 30 lbs & 30 inches,

4 y/o = 40 lbs & 40 inches.

53

By what age should a child be able to kick a ball?

24 months

54

A child with a fever lasting longer than five days should make you think of what diagnosis?

Kawasaki syndrome

55

A widely split fixed S2 should make you think of what diagnosis?

Atrial septal defect

56

Nasal polyps should make you think of what diagnosis?

Cystic fibrosis

57

In order to diagnose rheumatic fever what one thing must you have?

Evidence of a strep infection either positive titer or positive culture. In addition to that you need 2 major criteria or 1 major and 2 minor criteria.

58

Forchheimer spots are associated with what disease?

Rubella

59

A salter harris type III fracture affects what area of the bone?

The physis (growth plate) as well as the epiphysis.

60

A lacey pink rash should make you think of what diagnosis?

Erythema infectiosum aka fifth disease aka slapped cheek.

61

Unilateral purulent rhinitis should make you think of what diagnosis?

Foreign body

62

What is the medical term for cross eyed?

Strabismus

63

What organism is the most common cause of otitis media?

Strep pneumonia

64

At what age should a child begin to say momma and dadda?

12 months