Flashcards in Infectious Disease Review Deck (101)
White curd like vaginal discharge should make you think of what diagnosis?
Vaginal candida infection
Owl eye inclusion bodies should make you think of what diagnosis?
If you have a patient with positive blood cultures for candida what is the first line drug?
What is the treatment for pertussis?
Erythromycin x 7 days
A leukemia patient has a CT of the liver which shows punched out lesions. What diagnosis should you be thinking of?
What disease does Rickettsia rickettsii cause?
Rocky mountain spotted fever
An inda ink stain showing cysts should make you think of what diagnosis?
A COPD patient has apical cavities and calcified nodes on his chest x-ray. You also discover he has a pet bat and a few birds. What is the most likely diagnosis?
An HIV patient presents with a nonproductive cough and a chest x-ray showing diffuse interstitial infiltrates. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCJ) formerly known as Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP).
Honey and babies should make you think of what diagnosis?
What type of organism causes botulism?
A Gram + rod, Clostridium botulinum
What is the treatment for botulism?
A patient presents to the ER with acute progessive weakness, diplopia and a very dry mouth. What organism may be causing this?
Rice water stool should make you think of what diagnosis?
Is diptheria a gram positive or negative organism?
A stuck on grey membrane in the pharynx should make you think of what diagnosis?
What are four steps in treating diphtheria?
Antitoxin, penicillin, remove membrane, report the case to the CDC
What is the clinical name for whooping cough?
What type of organism is tetanus?
A Gram + rod, Clostridium tetani
A patient ate out last night and today has cramping and bloody diarrhea. What is the most likely organism?
Diarrhea with blood and mucus should make you think of what diagnosis?
What is the best test to diagnose malaria?
Peripheral blood smear
What organism has been linked to reactive arthritis?
Shigella, also remember that reactive arthritis has a positive HLA-B27.
What is the treatment for shigella?
Bactrim or fluoroquinolones and hydration.
What organism causes lyme disease?
What is the minimum amount of time needed for a tick to transfer Lyme disease to a human?
What is the drug of choice to treat Lyme disease in kids or pregnant women?
What is the drug of choice to treat C. difficile?
A patient was in the woods yesterday and today presents with erythema migrans. What is the most likely diagnosis?
What drug is used for the treatment or prophylaxis of malaria?
A patient was camping a few days ago and now has a rash that began on his wrists and ankles. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Rocky mountain spotted fever
What is the drug of choice for treating rocky mountain spotted fever?
What is the drug of choice for the treatment of syphilis?
Any reference to dark field microscopy should make you think of what organism?
Is staph gram (+) or gram (-)?
A patient being treated with penicillin for a syphilis infection develops fever, chills, muscle pain and headaches. Do you stop treatment?
No this is Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. The patient must be closely monitored, but it is a response to released endotoxin from the death of the spirochetes and not an allergic reaction.
What organism is believed to be the main culprit in creating peptic ulcers?
A painless, clean base chancre should make you think of what diagnosis?
Is pseudomonas gram (+) or gram (-)?
A patient complains of a rash on his palms and soles. He has a fever and chills. In conversation he mentions a strange painless chancre he had a few weeks ago. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Secondary syphilis. This is the most contagious stage.
What is the treatment for cholera?
What is the current drug of choice for the cytomegalovirus?
Which herpesvirus causes Epstein?Barr?
A sixteen year old girl presents with an exudative sore throat and general malaise. On physical exam you observe some posterior chain lymphadenopathy and mild splenomegaly. What is the most likely diagnosis?
What are the two important peices of patient education for anyone diagnosed with mononucleosis?
No contact sports due to risk of splenic rupture, no kissing (highly contagious).
What is the first symptom of a rabies infection?
Pain and anesthesia at the site of the bite.
How do you definitively diagnos rabies?
Pathology of the brain of the animal that performed the bite using fluorescent antibody stain.
A patient is bitten by a rabies infected raccoon. On what days do you give human diploid cells?
0, 3, 7, 14, 28
A diaper rash with satellite lesions should make you think of what diagnosis?
Name three serious reactions a patient may have with the use of vancomycin??
Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
What tests are done to screen for HIV?
ELISA and then if the positive diagnosis is confirmed with a western blot test.
What is the drug of choice for the treatment of Lyme disease?
What does trismus mean?
Lock jaw, often secondary to tetanus.
How do you treat amebiasis?
How do you treat pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCJ) formerly known as pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)?
What is the treatment for a tetanus infections?
Penicillin, immune globulin and supportive care (especially respiratory support).
How do hookworm larvae enter the body?
They penetrate the skin usually through the soles of the feet.
How do you treat hookworm?
What type of mosquitoes carry malaria?
How do you treat white oral plaques that can be scraped off?
This is most likely candida. Topical nystatin or oral fluconazole 1 mg are first line choices.
A CT scan shows ring enhancing lesions in an HIV patient. What is the most likely diagnosis?
What is the drug of choice for toxoplasmosis?
What organism causes Toxoplasmosis?
What drug do you use to treat pinworm?
You treat everyone in the house with albendazole. Two weeks later you treat them again.
The scotch tape test is used to diagnose what disease?
Is neisseria gram (+) or gram (-)?
Syphilis is caused by what organism?
A Gram positive organism in chains should make you think of what diagnosis?
A Gram negative diplococci should make you think of what diagnosis?
What is the most common prophylactic antibiotic used preoperatively?
What oral antibiotic can be used for pseudomonas?
What is the suffix for used for most fluoroquinolones?
Why aren't fluoroquinolones used more frequently?
They have lots of side effects.
A patient presents with a ruptured achilles tendon. He states he that he was recently in the hospital for a "blood infection and on a ton of antibiotics." What antibiotic class may he have been on?
Why can't you give fluoroquinolones to kids?
They can cause cartilage development problems.
What class of antibiotics should you start with for community acquired pneumonia?
List two macrolides.
Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin.
What antibiotic class is the class of choice for chlamydia?
What class of antibiotics is sometimes prescribed specifically for its effects on increasing GI motility?
Which medication is worse to give to a pediatric patient, tetracycline or an aminoglycoside?
Pizza pie retinopathy should make you think of what diagnosis?
A patient presents complaining of a metallic taste in her mouth and dark brown urine. What antibiotic might she be on?
What antibiotic is most likely to cause C. diff?
What is the current drug of choice for treating MRSA?
You place a patient on rifampin. What side effect should you warn her about?
Orange-red discoloration of body fluids.
What might happen if you infuse vancomycin to fast?
Red man syndrome
Name one oral medication that can be used for MRSA.
Linezolid (zyvox) and Bactrim
What organism is most commonly responsible for community acquired pneumonia?
What organism is the most common cause of an uncomplicated urinary tract infection?
Gummas or granulomatous nodules should make you think of what diagnosis?
Bloody stool with cysts and trophozoites should make you think of what diagnosis?
Community acquired carditis is most often caused by one of the HACEK organisms. List the HACEK organisms.
Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella.
What are three medications often combined as a first line treatment for H. pylori?
Omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin (PPI + 2 Antibioitcs).
What is the prophylactic antibiotic most commonly given before a dental procedure if one is necessary?
Amoxicillin 2 grams po 1 hour before procedure.
A pregnant woman and cat litter should make you think of what diagnosis?
What is the drug of choice to treat a urethritis caused by neisseria?
Is klebsiella gram (+) or gram (-)?
A Gram positive organism in clusters should make you think of what diagnosis?
What is the best test for diagnosing rocky mountain spotted fever?
Indirect Immunofluorescent antibodies.
A Gram negative coccobaccili found in the sputum of patient with pneumonia should make you think of what diagonsis?