Infectious Disease Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infectious Disease Review Deck (101)
1

White curd like vaginal discharge should make you think of what diagnosis?

Vaginal candida infection

2

Owl eye inclusion bodies should make you think of what diagnosis?

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

3

If you have a patient with positive blood cultures for candida what is the first line drug?

Amphotericin B

4

What is the treatment for pertussis?

Erythromycin x 7 days

5

A leukemia patient has a CT of the liver which shows punched out lesions. What diagnosis should you be thinking of?

Hepatosplenic candida

6

What disease does Rickettsia rickettsii cause?

Rocky mountain spotted fever

7

An inda ink stain showing cysts should make you think of what diagnosis?

Cryptococcosis

8

A COPD patient has apical cavities and calcified nodes on his chest x-ray. You also discover he has a pet bat and a few birds. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Histoplasmosis

9

An HIV patient presents with a nonproductive cough and a chest x-ray showing diffuse interstitial infiltrates. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCJ) formerly known as Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP).

10

Honey and babies should make you think of what diagnosis?

Botulism

11

What type of organism causes botulism?

A Gram + rod, Clostridium botulinum

12

What is the treatment for botulism?

Antitoxin

13

A patient presents to the ER with acute progessive weakness, diplopia and a very dry mouth. What organism may be causing this?

Clostridium botulinum

14

Rice water stool should make you think of what diagnosis?

Cholera

15

Is diptheria a gram positive or negative organism?

Gram positive

16

A stuck on grey membrane in the pharynx should make you think of what diagnosis?

Diphtheria

17

What are four steps in treating diphtheria?

Antitoxin, penicillin, remove membrane, report the case to the CDC

18

What is the clinical name for whooping cough?

Pertussis

19

What type of organism is tetanus?

A Gram + rod, Clostridium tetani

20

A patient ate out last night and today has cramping and bloody diarrhea. What is the most likely organism?

Salmonella

21

Diarrhea with blood and mucus should make you think of what diagnosis?

Shigella

22

What is the best test to diagnose malaria?

Peripheral blood smear

23

What organism has been linked to reactive arthritis?

Shigella, also remember that reactive arthritis has a positive HLA-B27.

24

What is the treatment for shigella?

Bactrim or fluoroquinolones and hydration.

25

What organism causes lyme disease?

Borrelia burgdorferi

26

What is the minimum amount of time needed for a tick to transfer Lyme disease to a human?

24 hours

27

What is the drug of choice to treat Lyme disease in kids or pregnant women?

Amoxicillin

28

What is the drug of choice to treat C. difficile?

Metronidazole (flagyl)

29

A patient was in the woods yesterday and today presents with erythema migrans. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Lyme disease

30

What drug is used for the treatment or prophylaxis of malaria?

Chloroquine

31

A patient was camping a few days ago and now has a rash that began on his wrists and ankles. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Rocky mountain spotted fever

32

What is the drug of choice for treating rocky mountain spotted fever?

Doxycycline

33

What is the drug of choice for the treatment of syphilis?

Pencillin

34

Any reference to dark field microscopy should make you think of what organism?

Treponema pallidum

35

Is staph gram (+) or gram (-)?

Gram (+)

36

A patient being treated with penicillin for a syphilis infection develops fever, chills, muscle pain and headaches. Do you stop treatment?

No this is Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. The patient must be closely monitored, but it is a response to released endotoxin from the death of the spirochetes and not an allergic reaction.

37

What organism is believed to be the main culprit in creating peptic ulcers?

Helicobacter pylori

38

A painless, clean base chancre should make you think of what diagnosis?

Primary syphilis

39

Is pseudomonas gram (+) or gram (-)?

Gram (-)

40

A patient complains of a rash on his palms and soles. He has a fever and chills. In conversation he mentions a strange painless chancre he had a few weeks ago. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Secondary syphilis. This is the most contagious stage.

41

What is the treatment for cholera?

Fluids

42

What is the current drug of choice for the cytomegalovirus?

Ganciclovir

43

Which herpesvirus causes Epstein?Barr?

Herpes 4

44

A sixteen year old girl presents with an exudative sore throat and general malaise. On physical exam you observe some posterior chain lymphadenopathy and mild splenomegaly. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Epstein?Barr virus

45

What are the two important peices of patient education for anyone diagnosed with mononucleosis?

No contact sports due to risk of splenic rupture, no kissing (highly contagious).

46

What is the first symptom of a rabies infection?

Pain and anesthesia at the site of the bite.

47

How do you definitively diagnos rabies?

Pathology of the brain of the animal that performed the bite using fluorescent antibody stain.

48

A patient is bitten by a rabies infected raccoon. On what days do you give human diploid cells?

0, 3, 7, 14, 28

49

A diaper rash with satellite lesions should make you think of what diagnosis?

Candida

50

Name three serious reactions a patient may have with the use of vancomycin??

Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

51

What tests are done to screen for HIV?

ELISA and then if the positive diagnosis is confirmed with a western blot test.

52

What is the drug of choice for the treatment of Lyme disease?

Doxycicline

53

What does trismus mean?

Lock jaw, often secondary to tetanus.

54

How do you treat amebiasis?

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

55

How do you treat pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCJ) formerly known as pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)?

Bactrim

56

What is the treatment for a tetanus infections?

Penicillin, immune globulin and supportive care (especially respiratory support).

57

How do hookworm larvae enter the body?

They penetrate the skin usually through the soles of the feet.

58

How do you treat hookworm?

Azoles

59

What type of mosquitoes carry malaria?

Anopheles

60

How do you treat white oral plaques that can be scraped off?

This is most likely candida. Topical nystatin or oral fluconazole 1 mg are first line choices.

61

A CT scan shows ring enhancing lesions in an HIV patient. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Toxoplasmosis

62

What is the drug of choice for toxoplasmosis?

Bactrim

63

What organism causes Toxoplasmosis?

Toxoplasma gondii

64

What drug do you use to treat pinworm?

You treat everyone in the house with albendazole. Two weeks later you treat them again.

65

The scotch tape test is used to diagnose what disease?

Pinworm

66

Is neisseria gram (+) or gram (-)?

Gram (-)

67

Syphilis is caused by what organism?

Treponema pallidum

68

A Gram positive organism in chains should make you think of what diagnosis?

Strep

69

A Gram negative diplococci should make you think of what diagnosis?

Neisseria

70

What is the most common prophylactic antibiotic used preoperatively?

Cephalexin (Ancef)

71

What oral antibiotic can be used for pseudomonas?

Ciprofloxacin

72

What is the suffix for used for most fluoroquinolones?

Oxacin

73

Why aren't fluoroquinolones used more frequently?

They have lots of side effects.

74

A patient presents with a ruptured achilles tendon. He states he that he was recently in the hospital for a "blood infection and on a ton of antibiotics." What antibiotic class may he have been on?

Fluoroquinolones

75

Why can't you give fluoroquinolones to kids?

They can cause cartilage development problems.

76

What class of antibiotics should you start with for community acquired pneumonia?

Macrolides

77

List two macrolides.

Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin.

78

What antibiotic class is the class of choice for chlamydia?

Macrolides

79

What class of antibiotics is sometimes prescribed specifically for its effects on increasing GI motility?

Macrolides

80

Which medication is worse to give to a pediatric patient, tetracycline or an aminoglycoside?

Tetracycline

81

Pizza pie retinopathy should make you think of what diagnosis?

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

82

A patient presents complaining of a metallic taste in her mouth and dark brown urine. What antibiotic might she be on?

Metronidazole (flagyl)

83

What antibiotic is most likely to cause C. diff?

Clindamycin

84

What is the current drug of choice for treating MRSA?

Vancomycin

85

You place a patient on rifampin. What side effect should you warn her about?

Orange-red discoloration of body fluids.

86

What might happen if you infuse vancomycin to fast?

Red man syndrome

87

Name one oral medication that can be used for MRSA.

Linezolid (zyvox) and Bactrim

88

What organism is most commonly responsible for community acquired pneumonia?

Strep pneumoniae

89

What organism is the most common cause of an uncomplicated urinary tract infection?

E. Coli

90

Gummas or granulomatous nodules should make you think of what diagnosis?

Tertiary syphilis

91

Bloody stool with cysts and trophozoites should make you think of what diagnosis?

Amebiasis

92

Community acquired carditis is most often caused by one of the HACEK organisms. List the HACEK organisms.

Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella.

93

What are three medications often combined as a first line treatment for H. pylori?

Omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin (PPI + 2 Antibioitcs).

94

What is the prophylactic antibiotic most commonly given before a dental procedure if one is necessary?

Amoxicillin 2 grams po 1 hour before procedure.

95

A pregnant woman and cat litter should make you think of what diagnosis?

Toxoplasmosis

96

What is the drug of choice to treat a urethritis caused by neisseria?

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

97

Is klebsiella gram (+) or gram (-)?

Gram (-)

98

A Gram positive organism in clusters should make you think of what diagnosis?

Staph

99

What is the best test for diagnosing rocky mountain spotted fever?

Indirect Immunofluorescent antibodies.

100

A Gram negative coccobaccili found in the sputum of patient with pneumonia should make you think of what diagonsis?

H. flu

101

What medication is used as prophylaxis for meningococal meningits?

Rifampin