Gastrointestinal Review Flashcards
What is the term for difficulty swallowing?
Birds beak esophagus on barium swallow should make you think of what diagnosis?
What is the most common location for an anal fissure?
Crohn’s is found where in the GI tract?
It can be from esophagus to anus.
What does HBsAG (hep B surface antigen) indicate?
Active Hep B infection
How do you treat achalasia?
Loosen up the muscle - botox, dilation or surgery.
A corkscrew appearance on barium study should make you think of what diagnosis?
Epigastric abdominal pain which radiates to the back should make you think of what diagnosis?
In order to contract hepatitis D what must you already have?
Left lower quadrant pain and tenderness should make you think of what diagnosis?
What is the treatment for most Mallory-Weiss tears?
Watchful waiting, these will typically resolve within 48 hours.
Thumbprint sign on abdominal film should make you think of what diagnosis?
What will the bowel sounds be early on in a small bowel obstruction? What will they be later on?
Early they are hyperactive. Late they are absent.
A patient has had GERD for years. Over the past year he has noticed an increase in difficulty swallowing his food. This should make you think of what diagnosis?
What are two treatments you should consider for esophageal strictures?
Dilation of the esophagus and long term PPIs.
What are two common predisposing factors for esophageal varices?
Portal HTN and cirrhosis often caused by alcoholism.
What is a common symptom that goes along with chest pain for GERD patients?
What medication is most commonly used for long term treatment of GERD?
Proton pump inhibitors - omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole.
What is the imaging modality of choice for pancreatitis?
What is the best test to check for H. pylori?
Urea breath test
Is peptic ulcer disease more common in the duodenum or the stomach?
What is the most common location for a pancreatic tumor?
75% occur in the head of the pancreas.
With a gastric ulcer are the patient’s symptoms exacerbated or relieved with food?
Fasting gastrin will be above what level with gastrinoma?
> 150 pg/ml
Projectile vomiting should make you think of what diagnosis?
Most gallstones are made of what substance?
What is the name of the sign when a patient shows inhibited inspiration with pressure over the RUQ? What diagnosis does it suggest?
Murphy’s sign, Cholecystitis
What is the most specific test for acute cholecystitis?
What is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of bile duct stones?
What is Charcot’s triad?
RUQ pain, fever, jaundice
What is Reynold’s pentad and why does it matter?
Charcot’s triad + hypotension + altered mental status. It indicates high risk of sepsis.
What disease is defined as an immunologic response to gluten?
What is the main risk factor for esophagitis?
An endoscopy for presumed esophagitis shows multiple shallow ulcers. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Herpes simplex virus
List two common offending agents for pill induced esophagitis?
NSAIDS, KCL, iron, antibiotics
A thirty year old African American woman presents with dysphagia. You notice she also has thickened skin. A barium swallow demonstrates the absence of peristalsis. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A patient complains of regurgitating undigested food several hours after a meal. What is the most likely diagnosis?
What is the most common cause of peptic ulcer disease?
What is most specific diagnostic test for peptic ulcer disease?
What is the only curative therapy for gastric adenocarcinoma?
A patient presents complaining of right upper quadrant pain 20 minutes after meals. What is the most likely diagnosis?
What does ERCP stand for?
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
What is the most common cause of acute bacterial cholangitis?
Onion ring fibrosis from a bile duct biopsy should make you think of what diagnosis?
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
What two viral hepatitis infections are self limiting?
Hepatitis A and hepatitis E
Pica is often related to what type of anemia?
Iron deficiency anemia