Cardiovascular Disorders Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step Two > Cardiovascular Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Disorders Deck (150)
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1

most common site of coronary artery occlusion

left anterior descending artery

2

heart region supplied by left anterior descending artery

anterior wall of left ventricle

3

heart region supplied by LAD septal branch

anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum

4

heart region supplied by left coronary circumflex branch

left atrium, posterolateral left ventricle

5

heart region supplied by right coronary posterior descending branch

inferior wall of left ventricle, posterior 1/3 of interventricular septum

6

heart region supplied by right coronary marginal branch

right atrium, right ventricle

7

heart region supplied by right coronary nodal branches

SA and AV nodes

8

gold standard for identifying coronary artery disease

coronary aniography

9

next step when exercise stress test is equivocal

nuclear exercise test with thallium-201 or technetium-99m-sestamibi during exercise testing

10

second line when comorbidities prevent exercise stress test

pharmacologic stress testing with dobutamine

11

age to begin screening for hyperlipidemia

men after age 35
women after age 45

12

goal LDL for patients at high risk for CAD

< 100 mg/dL

13

goal LDL for patients with 2+ risk factors for CAD

< 130 mg/dL

14

goal LDL for patients with 0-1 risk factors for CAD

< 160 mg/dL

15

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors

acts on liver
decreases LDL and triglycerides
increases HDL

SE: myositis, increases LFTs

16

ezetimibe

cholesterol absorption inhibitor acts on intestines
decreases LDL

SE: myalgias, increases LFTs

17

gemfibrozil, fenofibrate

stimulates lipoprotein lipase in blood
decreases LDL and triglycerides
increases HDL

SE: myositis, increases LFTs

18

cholestyramine, colestipol, colesevelam

bile acid sequestrants in GI tract
decreases LDL
increases triglycerides

SE: bad taste, abdominal discomfort

19

niacin

acts on liver
decreases LDL, triglycerides
increases HDL

SE: flushing, nausea, pruritis, insulin resistance, gout, paresthesias, increases LFTs

20

vessels most commonly used for CABG

saphenous vein
internal mammary artery

21

pharmacotherapy for unstable angina

aspirin and clopidogrel (if no PTCA)
GP IIb/IIIa (if PTCA)
oxygen
nitroglycerin
heparin
beta-blockers

22

time limit for thrombolysis in MI

12 hours
use t-Pa or urokinase

23

cardiac enzyme to evaluate immediate re-infarct

CPK-MB
(decreases in 2-3 days)

24

risk reduction medications after MI

low dose ASA
clopidogrel
beta-blockers
ACE inhibitors
K-sparing diuretics
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
exercise, smoking cessation, and dietary modifications

25

V2, V3, V4 infarction

anterior infarction
LAD artery

26

V1, V2, V3 infarction

septal infarction
LAD artery

27

II, III, aVF infarction

inferior infarction
posterior descending or marginal branch

28

1, aVL, V4, V5, V6

lateral infarction
LAD or circumflex artery

29

V1, V2

posterior infarction
posterior descending artery

30

first degree heart block

PR > 0.2 seconds

asymptomatic
caused by increased vagal tone or functional conduction impairment