Hematology/Oncology Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematology/Oncology Disorders Deck (95)
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1

teenage African American male presents to the ER with right hip pain and a hematocrit of 25%

sickle cell anemia with osteonecrosis of the femoral head

2

next step in management of patient with febrile neutropenia due to chemotherapy

admission, neutropenic precautions, blood culture, urine culture, CXR, and broad spectrum IV antibiotics

3

most common cause of anemia in elderly patients

folate deficiency

4

blood smear of patient with anemia due to lead poisoning

microcytic, hypochromic, basophilic stippling, and sideroblastic anemia

5

cause of anemia in an alcoholic patient with an elevated MCV

folate deficiency

6

cause of anemia that develops after taking a sulfa drug

G6PD deficiency

7

medication used in long-term management of sickle cell anemia

hydroxyurea

8

compare serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin levels in iron deficiency anemia v. anemia of chronic disease

iron low in both
ferritin increased in chronic disease
transferrin increased in iron deficiency

9

what lab markers suggest anemia due to hemolysis

increased indirect bilirubin, reticulocyte count, LDH
MCV normal
H/H decreased
decreased haptoglobin

10

schistocytes

mechanical hemolysis, drug-induced hemolysis

11

RBC disorder associated with acanthocytes (spur cells)

abetalipoproteinemia

12

RBC disorder associated with bite cells

G6PD deficiency

13

RBC disorder associated with basophilic stippling of RBCs

lead poisoning, thalassemia, alcoholism

14

RBC disorder associated with peripheral neuropathy, sideroblastic RBCs

lead poisoning

15

RBC disorder associated with hypersegmented neutrophils

folate, B12 deficiecny

16

RBC disorder associated with heinz bodies

G6PD deficiency

17

which vaccines are particularly important in children with sickle cell disease

pneumococcal, HiB vaccines

18

other than vaccination, how is pneumococcal infection prevented in children

prophylactic penicillin until the age of 5

19

complication that occurs in 10% of patients with sideroblastic anemia

leukemia

20

differential diagnosis for serum eosinophilia

drugs (NSAIDs, penicillins/cephalosporins)
neoplasms
allergies, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
adrenal insufficiency
acute interstitial nephritis
collage vascular disease (PAD, dermatomyositis)
parasites, HIV, hyper-IgE, cocciodiomycosis, hypereosinophilic syndrome

21

drugs known for causing thrombocytopenia

heparin, abciximab
carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproate
cimetidine
acyclovir, rifampin
sulfonamides (sulfasalazine, bactrim)
procainamide, quinidine
quinine, gold compounds

22

most common causes of DIC

sepsis, trauma, pancreatitis, neoplasm, obstetric complications, transfusions

23

inherited diseases of hypercoagulation

factor V leiden, antithrombin III def, protein C/S def, prothrombin gene mutation
hyperhomocysteinemia (MTHFR gene mutation)
rare: dysfibrinogenemia, plasminogen deficiency

24

treatment for mononucleosis

no antiviral medication
NSAIDs, tylenol, hydration
return to contact sport after 4 weeks, non-contact sport after 3 weeks

25

classic pentad for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure
fever, neurological symptoms

26

most common mutation in white patients that predisposes to hypercoagulability

factor V leiden

27

mechanism of action of streptokinase

thrombolytic, cleaves fibrinogen

28

mechanism of action of aspirin

COX-inhibitor, blocks platelet aggregation

29

mechanism of action of clopidogrel

ADP inhibitor

30

mechanism of action of abciximab

gIIbIIIa inhibitor