Cardiovascular Disorders Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step Two > Cardiovascular Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Disorders Deck (150)
Loading flashcards...
91

biliary side effect of gastric bypass surgery

increased risk of gallstones
treatment: ursodeoxycholic acid prophylactically for 6 months after surgery

92

somatic pain

sharp, localized pain

93

visceral pain

generalized, crampy pain

94

referred pain

visceral fibers enter spinal cord at the same location as somatic fibers and brain misinterprets visceral pain as somatic

95

wide fixed splitting of second heart sound

atrial septal defect

96

normal PCWP pressure

6-12 mmHg

97

normal right atrial pressure

4-6 mmHg

98

normal pulmonary artery pressure

does not exceed 25/15 mmHg

99

treatment of hemodynamically unstable PSVT

cardioversion or calcium channel blocker

100

treatment of stable PSVT

carotid massage or valsalva maneuver
pharmacotherapy: beta-blocker or CCB

101

treatment for wolff-parkinson-white

amiodarone or procainamide
NO adenosine

102

progressive PR lengthening until dropped QRS

second degree mobitz I heart block

103

randomly skipped QRS without changes in PR interval

second degree mobitz II

104

when is pacemaker indicated in heart bock

second degree mobitz II and third degree
only indicated in mobitz I if there is symptomatic bradycardia present

105

several ectopic foci in the atria that discharge automatic impulses
usually asymptomatic

multifocal atrial tachycardia
treatment: CCB or beta-blockers acutely, catheter ablation of surgery to eliminate abnormal pacemakers

106

causes of PVCs

hypoxia, abnormal serum electrolytes, hyperthyroidism, caffeine use

107

what do PVCs look like

early and wide QRS without preceding P waves

108

treatment of PVCs

none if patient is healthy, beta-blocker in patients with CAD

109

treatment for atrial flutter

rate control with CCB, beta-blockers, cardioversion if unable to be controlled with medication, and catheter ablation to remove ectopic focus

110

treatment for torsades de pointes

magnesium sulfate

111

treatment for stable ventricular tachycardia

procainamide or amiodarone
amiodarone is drug of choice in patients with CHF

112

treatment for symptomatic bradycardia

atropine

113

most frequent physical exam finding of CHF

S3 sound

114

kerley B lines

increased marking of lung interlobular septa caused by pulmonary edema

115

indication for K-sparing diuretics in congestive heart failure

reduce cardiac hypertrophy caused by aldosterone

116

treatment for pericarditis

NSAIDs, colchicine
pericardiocentesis for large effusions
hemodialysis for uremic pericarditis

117

cardiac catherization shows equal pressure in all chambers

chronic constrictive pericarditis

118

causes of cardiac tamponade

pericarditis, chest trauma, LV rupture following MI, or dissecting aortic aneurysm

119

treatment for cardiac tamponade

immediate pericardiocentesis

120

harsh blowing holosystolic murmur radiating from apex to axilla

mitral regurgitation