Cardiovascular Disorders Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step Two > Cardiovascular Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Disorders Deck (150)
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121

widely split S2

mitral regurgitation

122

midsystolic click

mitral regurgitation

123

opening snap after S2

mitral stenosis

124

diastolic rumble

mitral stenosis

125

loud S1

mitral stenosis

126

widened pulse pressure

aortic regurgitation

127

bounding pulses

aortic regurgitation

128

diastolic decrescendo murmur

aortic regurgitation

129

late diastolic rumble

aortic regurgtation

130

crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur

aortic stenosis

131

weak S2

aortic stenosis

132

dual stroke carotid pulse, systolic murmur, S4

hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

133

treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

beta-blockers, CCBs
pacemaker or partial septal excision

134

treatment for mitral regurgitation

arterial vasodilators if symptomatic (nitroprusside)
prophylactic antibiotics for increased infection risk

135

treatment for aortic regurgitation

decrease afterload with ACE-inhibitors, CCBs, or nitrates

136

treatment for aortic stenosis

beta-blockers
diuretics to decrease preload

137

treatment for bacterial endocarditis

4-6 weeks IV antibitoics
beta-lactam plus an aminoglycoside
antibiotic prophylaxis before surgery or dental work

138

heart sounds you may hear with hypertension

loud S2, possible S4

139

causes of thoracic aortic aneurysms

marfan's syndrome, ehlers-danlos, and syphilis

140

most common location of aortic aneurysm

abdominal below the renal arteries

141

anti-hypertensive used in migraine headaches

beta-blockers

142

aortic dissection: stanford A v. stanford B

stanford A: ascending aorta, requires emergency surgery
stanford B: distal to left subclavian, treat medically with nitroprusside, beta-blockers

143

wide fixed split S2, systolic ejection murmur at upper left sternal border

atrial septal defect

144

loud pumonic S2, systolic thrill

ventricular septal defect

145

loud S2, bounding pulses at birth

patent ductus arteriosus
accompanied by a "machinery" murmur

146

risk factors for transposition of the great vessels

diabetic mother
apert's syndrome, down syndrome, cri-du-chat, trisomy 13, trisomy 18

147

cardiac pathologies with "boot-shaped" heart on imaging

hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
tetralogy of fallot
persistent truncus arteriosus

148

treatment for tetralogy of fallot

prostaglandin E to maintain PDA, propranolol, morphine, knee-to-chest positioning during cyanotic episodes

149

treatment of mediastinitis

surgical debridement and prolonged antibiotic therapy

150

prophylactic treatment for long QT syndrome

propranolol