Cardiovascular: Heart and Neck Vessels Flashcards Preview

304 Health Assessment Lecture > Cardiovascular: Heart and Neck Vessels > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular: Heart and Neck Vessels Deck (47)
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1

What is the Precordium?

area on the anterior chest that overlies the heart and great vessels

2

What is the apical impulse?

where apex beats against chest wall

3

What is systole?

the first heart sound (lub)
results in closure of tricuspid and mitral valves

4

What is diastole?

second heart sound (dub)
results in closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves

5

When does the heart of an infant begin to beat?

end of the 3 week's gestation

6

What are some clues to cardiopathology?

height, weight, and feeding patterns

7

What cardiovascular alterations are seen in the pregnant female?

30-40% increase in blood volume
increase of cardiac output and pulse rate

8

What is orthostatic hypotension?

Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing when compared with blood pressure from the sitting or supine position.

9

What are ectopic beats?

- Ectopic heartbeats are small changes in a heartbeat that is otherwise normal. These changes lead to extra or skipped heartbeats

10

What are some congestive heart failure symptoms?

The symptoms of congestive heart failure vary, but can include:
fatigue,
diminished exercise capacity,
shortness of breath, and
swelling (edema).

11

In which ethnic group is heart disease and stroke highest?

African american

12

White men and women are more likely to be overweight true or false?

true

13

Which ethnic groups have the highest prevalence of diabetes?

African americans and Mexican americans

14

For a cardiovascular assessment what are some health assessment topics are discussed to collect subjective data?

Angina
Dyspnea
With exertion? Heart failure
Orthopnea
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea (PND)
Heart failure
Cough

15

What is angina?

- Angina is chest pain or discomfort caused when your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. The discomfort also can occur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back. Angina pain may even feel like indigestion. But, angina is not a disease.

16

What is dyspnea?

difficult or labored breathing

17

What is orthopnea?

Orthopnea or orthopnoea is shortness of breath (dyspnea) that occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair.

18

What is paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)?

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (PND) refers to attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing that generally occur at night. It usually awakens the person from sleep, and may be quite frightening.

19

What is cyanosis?

Cyanosis refers to bluish discoloration of skin, nail beds and mucous membranes. Normally haemoglobin carries most of the oxygen in blood. This oxygen carrying capacity of haemoglobin in the blood (present in the arteries) is called oxygen saturation.

20

What is pallor?

an unhealthy pale appearance

21

What is edema?

Edema is the medical term for swelling. Body parts swell from injury or inflammation. It can affect a small area or the entire body. Medications, infections, pregnancy, and many other medical problems can cause edema.

Edema happens when your small blood vessels become "leaky" and release fluid into nearby tissues. That extra fluid builds up, which makes the tissue swell.

22

What is nocturia?

Nocturia is a condition in which you wake up during the night because you have to urinate. This condition becomes more common as people age and occurs in both men and women, sometimes for different reasons.

23

What are some risk factors for cardiovascular disease?

Elevated serum cholesterol
Elevated blood pressure
Blood sugar levels above 130
Diabetes Mellitus
Obesity
Smoking
Sedentary lifestyle
Stress/depression
Low socioeconomic status
Diet high in saturated fat
Family history

24

Which gender is more at risk for coronary artery disease?

-females
Coronary artery disease leading cause of death in women
1 out of 2.4 due to cardiovascular disease
1 out of 29 breast cancer (women perceive breast cancer as greater risk)

All women should be screened for risk factors

25

What atypical symtoms are women experiencing when they have heart disease or myocardial infarction?

Angina: hot/cold burning sensation; tender to touch in back shoulders, arms or jaw
Often no chest discomfort or pain
Nausea vomiting, indigestion, shortness of breath or extreme fatigue
Throbbing above waist
Breathlessness
Cold sweat
Feeling of impending doom
Edema

26

What is the assessment order for a cardiovascular assessment?

Assessment Order
Inspection
Precordium and neck vessels
Palpation
Precordium and neck vessels
Extremities
Auscultation
Heart sounds

27

What side of the heart does the jugular vein tell you about?

right side of the heart
observe for distention

28

What are the expected findings when palpating the carotid artery (remember one side at a time)?

smooth contour
amplitude is 2+ moderate
equal bilaterally

29

What are the abnormal findings when palpating the carotid artery?

diminished pulse (decreased stroke volume, 1+)
significantly strong pulse (4+)
unequal bilaterally

30

When palpating the precordium what are the expected and unexpected findings?

-precordium is the outer aspect of the heart so palpate apex, left sternal border, and base
-expected: nothing
-abnormal: thrill: vibration (purring cat): indicates turbulent blood flow. heave: sustained forceful thrust