Flashcards in Chapter 23: Neurologic System Deck (55)
What are the parts of the central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
What are the parts of the peripheral nervous system (PNS):
all nerve fibers outside brain and spinal cord
Includes 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, and all their branches
Carries sensory (afferent) messages to CNS from sensory receptors
Motor (efferent) messages from CNS to muscles and glands, as well as autonomic messages that govern internal organs and blood vessels
What is the cerebral cortex?
cerebrum's outer layer of nerve cells
Cerebral cortex is center of functions governing thought, memory, reasoning, sensation, and voluntary movement
Each half of cerebrum is hemisphere
Each hemisphere divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
What is associated with Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe?
What is associated with Broca's area in the frontal lobe?
What does damage to specific cortical areas produce?
-loss of sensation
-impaired ability to understand and process language
Damage occurs when highly specialized neurologic cells are deprived of blood supply, such as when a cerebral artery becomes occluded
What are the many basic functions of the hypothalamus?
Major respiratory center
Many basic functions:
Temperature, heart rate, blood pressure
Anterior and posterior pituitary gland regulation
Coordination of autonomic nervous system
What does the cerebellum do?
Coiled structure located under occipital lobe concerned with:
Coordination of voluntary movements, equilibrium, and muscle tone
Does not initiate, but coordinates and smoothes movements
What kind of information does the left cerebral cortex receive?
What function does the left cerebral cortex control?
controls motor function to right side of the body
What does the right cerebral cortex interact with?
left side of the body
What are reflexes?
basic defense mechanisms of the nervous system
What are the four types of reflexes?
1.) deep tendon reflexes (myotatic) example: knee jerk
2.) Superficial example: corneal reflexes, abdominal reflex
3.) Visceral example: pupillary response to light
4.) Pathologic (abnormal) example: Babinski's reflex or extensor plantar reflex
The 12 pairs of cranial nerves supply primarily:
2.) neck except vagus nerve which travels to heart
3.) respiratory muscles
How many cranial nerves are there?
How many spinal nerves are there?
(8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal)
What are mixed nerves?
they contain both sensory and motor fibers
What does the autonomic system mediate?
Carry fibers are divided functionally into what 2 parts?
somatic and autonomic fibers
What should be kept in mind about nerve conduction, synapse delay, motor system, cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption with the aging adult?
Velocity of nerve conduction decreases making reaction time slower in some older persons
Increased delay at synapse results in diminished sensation of touch, pain, taste, and smell
Motor system may show general slowing down of movement; muscle strength and agility decrease
Progressive decrease in cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption may cause dizziness and loss of balance
What are some topics for subjective data questions to ask your patient?
When do we perform screening neurologic examinations?
on well persons with no significant findings from history
When do we perform complete neurologic examinations?
on persons with neurologic concerns such as headaches, weakness, loss of coordination, or who have shown signs of neurologic dysfunction
When do we perform neurologic recheck examinations?
on persons with demonstrated neurologic deficits who require periodic assessments, e.g., hospitalized persons or those in extended care
What sequence is used for complete neurologic examinations?
For objective data collection what equipment is required?
Tuning fork: 128 Hz or 256 Hz
What is cranial nerve I?
the olfactory nerve
(each of the first pair of cranial nerves, transmitting impulses to the brain from the smell receptors in the mucous membrane of the nose.)
(not tested routinely)
What is cranial nerve II?
the optic nerve
(each of the second pair of cranial nerves, transmitting impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye.)
What are cranial nerves III, IV, and VI?
(each of the third pair of cranial nerves, supplying most of the muscles around and within the eyeballs.)
(The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that innervates only a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which operates through the pulley-like trochlea.)
(each of the sixth pair of cranial nerves, supplying the muscles concerned with the lateral movement of the eyeballs.)