Chapter 12: skin, hair, and nails Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: skin, hair, and nails Deck (49)
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1

What are the developmental differences in skin?

Young
Immature skin
Unable to prevent fluid loss
Unable to help regulate temperature

Older adult
Stratum Corneum thins and flattens
Wrinkling occurs
Vascular fragility increases

2

What are things kept in mind about cross cultural care?

Increased Melanin
Decreased incidence of skin cancer

Skin conditions specific to blacks
Keloids
Pigmentary Disorders
Pseudofolliculitis
Melasma

3

What are keloids?

-overgrowth of scar tissue

4

What is psuedofolliculitis?

-numerous smooth little tender red bumps involve the hair follicles commonly on the face, scalp, chest, back, buttocks, and legs
-inflammatory reaction surrounding ingrown facial hairs which results from shaving. It is also known as shaving rash or razor bumps

5

What is melasma?

common skin problem causing brown to gray brown patches usually on the face
-can be triggered by pregnancy, sun, genetic predisposition, and hormonal changes

6

What are some health history questions for subjective data collection?

Previous history of skin disease: (allergies, hives, psoriasis, or eczema)
Change in mole
Change in pigmentation (size or color)
Excessive dryness or moisture
Pruritus
Excessive bruising

Rash or lesion
Medications
Hair loss or change in texture
Change in nails
Environmental or occupational hazards
Self-care behaviors

7

What is pruritus?

severe itching of the skin

8

What is the objective data collected for scalp and hair?

color
quantity
distribution
-the expected findings: even color, full distribution

9

What is alopecia?

the partial or complete absence of hair from areas of the body where it normally grows; baldness

10

What are the expected findings for hair texture?

fine/thick/curly/kinky etc
uniform

11

What are unexpected findings for hair texture?

dry/brittle
sparse

12

What are the expected findings for the scalp?

clear/mobile

13

What are the unexpected findings for the scalp?

lesions/parasites

14

What are the expected findings for nails?

Rounded shape, pink, well-adhered, nail base firm, brisk capillary refill, 160 degree angle of attachment

15

What are the unexpected findings for nails?

Clubbing, cyanosis, pallor, >160 degree angle of attachment, capillary refill > 3 seconds (delayed)

16

What is clubbing?

Drumstick fingers, watch-glass nails. Clubbing. ... Nail clubbing, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs.

17

What is cyanosis?

a bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood.

18

What are the expected findings for color and pigmentation?

Uniform and consistent throughout
Ethnic Appropriate
Pink for Caucasians
Evenly Pigmented

19

What are the unexpected findings for color and pigmentation?

Pallor
Cyanosis
Jaundice
Erythema
Hypopigmentation
Hyperpigmentation
Vitiligo

20

What is pallor?

unhealthy pale appearance

21

What is jaundice?

Jaundice is the medical term that describes yellowing of the skin and eyes. ... Jaundice forms when there is too much bilirubin in your system. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is formed by the breakdown of dead red blood cells in the liver. Normally, the liver gets rid of bilirubin along with old red blood cells.

22

What is erythema?

superficial reddening of the skin, usually in patches, as a result of injury or irritation causing dilatation of the blood capillaries.

23

What is hypopigmentation?

Hypopigmentation is the loss of skin color. It is caused by melanocyte or melanin depletion, or a decrease in the amino acid tyrosine, which is used by melanocytes to make melanin.

24

What is hyperpigmentation?

Hyperpigmentation is a common, usually harmless condition in which patches of skin become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin. This darkening occurs when an excess of melanin, the brown pigment that produces normal skin color, forms deposits in the skin.

25

What is vitiligo?

Vitiligo (vit-ill-EYE-go) is a disorder in which white patches of skin appear on different parts of the body. This happens because the cells that make pigment (color) in the skin are destroyed. These cells are called melanocytes (ma-LAN-o-sites).
Acquired condition
Complete absence of melanin pigment
Irregular in shape
Can occur in all races
Threat to self-image only

26

What are the expected findings for temperature?

warm
equal bilaterally and throughout

27

What are the unexpected findings for temperature?

hypothermia
hyperthermia
hot spots

28

What is the dorsa of the hand used for in palpation?

temperature

29

What is hypothermia?

the condition of having an abnormally low body temperature, typically one that is dangerously low.

30

What is hyperthermia?

the condition of having a body temperature greatly above normal.