Flashcards in Chapter 12: skin, hair, and nails Deck (49)
What are the developmental differences in skin?
Unable to prevent fluid loss
Unable to help regulate temperature
Stratum Corneum thins and flattens
Vascular fragility increases
What are things kept in mind about cross cultural care?
Decreased incidence of skin cancer
Skin conditions specific to blacks
What are keloids?
-overgrowth of scar tissue
What is psuedofolliculitis?
-numerous smooth little tender red bumps involve the hair follicles commonly on the face, scalp, chest, back, buttocks, and legs
-inflammatory reaction surrounding ingrown facial hairs which results from shaving. It is also known as shaving rash or razor bumps
What is melasma?
common skin problem causing brown to gray brown patches usually on the face
-can be triggered by pregnancy, sun, genetic predisposition, and hormonal changes
What are some health history questions for subjective data collection?
Previous history of skin disease: (allergies, hives, psoriasis, or eczema)
Change in mole
Change in pigmentation (size or color)
Excessive dryness or moisture
Rash or lesion
Hair loss or change in texture
Change in nails
Environmental or occupational hazards
What is pruritus?
severe itching of the skin
What is the objective data collected for scalp and hair?
-the expected findings: even color, full distribution
What is alopecia?
the partial or complete absence of hair from areas of the body where it normally grows; baldness
What are the expected findings for hair texture?
What are unexpected findings for hair texture?
What are the expected findings for the scalp?
What are the unexpected findings for the scalp?
What are the expected findings for nails?
Rounded shape, pink, well-adhered, nail base firm, brisk capillary refill, 160 degree angle of attachment
What are the unexpected findings for nails?
Clubbing, cyanosis, pallor, >160 degree angle of attachment, capillary refill > 3 seconds (delayed)
What is clubbing?
Drumstick fingers, watch-glass nails. Clubbing. ... Nail clubbing, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs.
What is cyanosis?
a bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
What are the expected findings for color and pigmentation?
Uniform and consistent throughout
Pink for Caucasians
What are the unexpected findings for color and pigmentation?
What is pallor?
unhealthy pale appearance
What is jaundice?
Jaundice is the medical term that describes yellowing of the skin and eyes. ... Jaundice forms when there is too much bilirubin in your system. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is formed by the breakdown of dead red blood cells in the liver. Normally, the liver gets rid of bilirubin along with old red blood cells.
What is erythema?
superficial reddening of the skin, usually in patches, as a result of injury or irritation causing dilatation of the blood capillaries.
What is hypopigmentation?
Hypopigmentation is the loss of skin color. It is caused by melanocyte or melanin depletion, or a decrease in the amino acid tyrosine, which is used by melanocytes to make melanin.
What is hyperpigmentation?
Hyperpigmentation is a common, usually harmless condition in which patches of skin become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin. This darkening occurs when an excess of melanin, the brown pigment that produces normal skin color, forms deposits in the skin.
What is vitiligo?
Vitiligo (vit-ill-EYE-go) is a disorder in which white patches of skin appear on different parts of the body. This happens because the cells that make pigment (color) in the skin are destroyed. These cells are called melanocytes (ma-LAN-o-sites).
Complete absence of melanin pigment
Irregular in shape
Can occur in all races
Threat to self-image only
What are the expected findings for temperature?
equal bilaterally and throughout
What are the unexpected findings for temperature?
What is the dorsa of the hand used for in palpation?
What is hypothermia?
the condition of having an abnormally low body temperature, typically one that is dangerously low.