Chapter 21: Abdomen Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: Abdomen Deck (20)
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1

What the topics brought up in the abdominal assessment for subjective data collection?

Appetite
Dysphagia
Food intolerance
Abdominal pain
Nausea / vomiting
Nutritional Assessment
Color:
Black/tarry: old blood or high in GI tract
Bright red: lower tract
Gray: hepatitis
Past abdominal history
Medications

2

What is the order of the physical assessment for the abdomen?

inspection
auscultation
percussion
palpation

3

What are the expected findings for inspection of the abdominal assessment?

Contour
Expected Findings
Flat to rounded contour
Symmetry
Expected Findings
Symmetrical bilaterally

4

What are the unexpected findings for inspection of the abdominal assessment?

Contour: Scaphoid, protuberant or distended

Symmetry: Herniations; Bulges; Masses

5

What are the expected and unexpected findings on the inspection of the umbilicus?

Expected Findings
Midline and inverted
____________________
Unexpected Findings
Deviated
Periumbilical cyanosis (Cullen’s sign): intraabdominal bleeding

6

What are the expected and unexpected findings for the abdominal skin inspection?

Expected findings
Smooth and even, color, warm, dry
____________________
Unexpected Findings
Redness; taut; glistening; striae prominent dilated veins
Be sure to describe scars and piercings

7

What are the expected and unexpected findings for pulsation or movement?

Expected findings
Slight aortic pulsations
________________
Unexpected Findings
Marked aortic pulsations or visible peristalsis (visible peristalsis can indicate bowel obstruction)

8

In what order is the bowel sounds auscultation done?

begin in RLQ and listen to all 4 quadrants

9

What are the expected auscultation findings?

Bowel Sounds
High pitched gurgling sounds 5-30 times a minute
Active and present X 4 quadrants

10

What are the unexpected auscultation findings?

Bowel Sounds
Hyperactive
Hypoactive
Absent
5 minutes

11

What is rebound tenderness?

Blumberg's sign, also referred to as rebound tenderness, is a clinical sign that is elicited during physical examination of a patient's abdomen by a doctor or other health care provider. It is indicative of peritonitis. It refers to pain upon removal of pressure rather than application of pressure to the abdomen.

12

What are the unexpected findings for palpation of the abdomen?

Masses
Tenderness
Muscle guarding
Rigidity: board like abdomen indicates peritonitis
Organomegaly – deep palpation

13

What is dysphagia?

Difficulty swallowing is also called dysphagia. It is usually a sign of a problem with your throat or esophagus -the muscular tube that moves food and liquids from the back of your mouth to your stomach.

14

What is pyrosis?

heart burn

15

What is eructation?

a belch

16

What is flatus?

gas in or from the stomach or intestines, produced by swallowing air or by bacterial fermentation.

17

What is visceral pain?

Visceral pain is pain that results from the activation of nociceptors of the thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal viscera (organs). Visceral structures are highly sensitive to distension (stretch), ischemia and inflammation, but relatively insensitive to other stimuli that normally evoke pain such as cutting or burning.

18

What is parietal pain?

Parietal abdominal pain is caused by irritation of fibers that innervate the parietal peritoneum. Parietal pain, in contrast to visceral pain, can be localized to the dermatome superficial to the site of the painful stimulus.

19

What is hematemesis?

the vomiting of blood

20

What is melena?

dark sticky feces containing partly digested blood.
the production of melena, following internal bleeding or the swallowing of blood.