Cardiovascular Medicine - Week 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Medicine - Week 1 Deck (62):
0

List the 4 chambers of the heart

Left and Right Atrium and Left and right Ventricle

1

Name the valve that separates the right atria from the right ventricle

Tricuspid Valve

2

Name the valve that separates the left atria from the left ventricle

Bicuspid Valve / Mitral valve

3

What is the role of the coronary system of vessels?

To supply the heart (myocardium)

4

Why do he coronary arteries lie on the outside wall of the heart?

To prevent their blood flow from being constricted upon contraction of the myocardium

5

List the main 2 branches off the left coronary artery

Circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery

6

List the main 2 branches off the right coronary artery

Posterior interventricular artery and right marginal artery

7

Lame the 3 main coronary veins and where they drain into

Great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein and small cardiac vein. They all drain into the coronary sinus

8

List the three layers of the heart from outermost to innermost

Epicardium, myocardium and endocardium

9

Which ventricle has a thicker myocardium and why?

Left ventricle to allow for greater force of contraction when pumping oxygenated blood around the body

10

What are the 2 main roles of the heart?

1.Delivery of blood to the lungs for oxygenation (pulmonary circulation) and 2. Delivery of oxygenated blood around the body (systemic circulation)

11

Which side of the heart is involved with pulmonary circulation?

Right side

12

Which side of the heart is involved with systemic circulation?

Left side

13

Where are the atria located in relation to the ventricles?

Superior and posteriorly to the ventricles

14

What forms the apex of the heart?

The base of the left ventricle

15

What is the role of the left and right pulmonary arteries?

To deliver deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs for oxygenation

16

What is the role of the 2 left and 2 right pulmonary veins?

To deliver oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium for release in systemic circulation

17

Where is the heart located?

In the middle mediastinum between ribs 2-5. Anterior to vertebral column and posterior to the sternum.

18

Where are the lungs located?

On the right and left sides of the mediastinum in the plural cavities

19

List the main contents of the Middle mediastinum

Heart, trachea, oesophagus , blood vessels

20

List the divisions of the mediastinum

Superior mediastinum and inferior mediastinum(anterior, middle and posterior mediastinum)

21

What separates the superior mediastinum from the inferior mediastinum?

The angle of Louis / sternal angle

22

What is the angle of Louis and what rib articulates at this site?

The level where the body of the sternum and the manubrium join. It extends backward to T4 and T5 vertebra. Rib 2 articulates at this site.

23

Why can you not palpate rib number 1?

Because it is posterior to the clavicle

24

List the dimensions of the heart

Right border: right atrium, left border and apex: left ventricle, base: left and right atria

25

List the layers of the pericardium

Fibrous and serous pericardium.Serous can be divided further into visceral and parietal pericardium. From outermost to innermost: fibrous, parietal , visceral.

26

Which pericardial layer is also referred to as the epicardium?

Visceral serous pericardium

27

Where is the pericardial cavity and what is its function?

Space Between the visceral and parietal pericardium. Has serous fluid inside to allow for frictionless movement of the heart as it contracts

28

What are the main parts of the fibrous skeleton of the heart?

An interatrial and interventricular septum and 4 CT rings that support the cuspid and semilunar valves.

29

Why is there no fibrous skeleton surrounding the ventricles and atria?

Because it would inhibit the filling of the chambers

30

Name the expandable flap like part of the atria

Auricle

31

Name the ridged muscular area of the auricle that allow for expansion upon filling

Pectinate muscles

32

Where is the Foramen ovale located in the embryo/ fetus

In the interatrial septum (on the septum secundum)

33

Name the muscles in the ventricles that assist with the closing of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves?

Papillary muscles

34

What attaches the papillary muscles to the tricuspid and bicuspid valves?

Chordae tendinae (heart strings) - collagen

35

What is the functional role of the cuspid valves?

To direct blood flow through the atria to the ventricles and prevent back flow into the atria

36

How do the AV valves prevent back flow into the atria??

When blood is directed for the atria to the ventricles, the AV valves are open and relaxed. When the blood is ready to be pumped from the ventricles, the papillary muscles contract alongside the ventricular muscle and pull on the AV valves to close them against the blood flow.

37

Where are the semilunar valves located?

In the aorta and the pulmonary trunk

38

How do the semilunar valves function?

They are passive valves. When the ventricles contract , blood is forced into the aorta and the pulmonary trunk. This force pushes the valves open and blood rushes into the vessels. When the ventricles relax, the blood in the vessels flows backwards again the valves and their cusps fill up and prevent it from reenterring the ventricles.

39

Define systole

The contraction of a chamber of the heart

40

Define Diastole

Relaxation of heart chamber

41

List the three layers of artery/ vein walls

Tunica externa (CT), tunica media (smooth muscle) and tunica intima (Simple squamous and areolar tissue)

42

Name the 3 types of arteries from largest to smallest

Elastic arteries, muscular arteries and arterioles

43

What is the name given to the smallest type of vein

Venule

44

List the three types of capillaries

Continuous, fenestrated and sinusoid

45

What is vasculogenesis?

Development of the heart

46

What week of pregnancy does the heart begin to grow?

Week 3

47

What embryological derivative is the heart from?

Mesoderm

48

What are the initial structures of the heart in early embryonic life?

2 endocardial tubes and a dorsal aorta

49

Name to the layers of the atrial septum

Septum primum and septum secundum,

50

Where does the Foramen ovale shunt blood away from

Away from lungs to the left side of the heart

51

What does the Foramen ovale become after birth?

Fossa ovalis

52

Role of umbilical veins?

Carry oxygen from the placenta to fetus

53

What does the ductus venous shunt?

The liver

54

What does the ductus arteriosus shunt?

Bypasses the lungs and shunts blood from pulmonary arteries to descending aorta

55

Which dorsal aorta degenerates?

Superior part of right dorsal aorta

56

What does the truncus arteriosus connect to?

connects left and right dorsal aorta by aortic arches 1,2,3,4,6

57

Which aortic arches degenerate

1 and 2

58

What are the 3 branches of the ascending aorta?

Brachiocephalic, left common carotid and left subclavian

59

Where does the aorta feed into?

The left ventricle

60

Where does the pulmonary artery feed into the heart?

The right ventricle

61

Where does the inferior and superior vena cava feed into the heart?

Right atrium