Flashcards in Cardiovascular Medicine - Week 1 Deck (62):
List the 4 chambers of the heart
Left and Right Atrium and Left and right Ventricle
Name the valve that separates the right atria from the right ventricle
Name the valve that separates the left atria from the left ventricle
Bicuspid Valve / Mitral valve
What is the role of the coronary system of vessels?
To supply the heart (myocardium)
Why do he coronary arteries lie on the outside wall of the heart?
To prevent their blood flow from being constricted upon contraction of the myocardium
List the main 2 branches off the left coronary artery
Circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery
List the main 2 branches off the right coronary artery
Posterior interventricular artery and right marginal artery
Lame the 3 main coronary veins and where they drain into
Great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein and small cardiac vein. They all drain into the coronary sinus
List the three layers of the heart from outermost to innermost
Epicardium, myocardium and endocardium
Which ventricle has a thicker myocardium and why?
Left ventricle to allow for greater force of contraction when pumping oxygenated blood around the body
What are the 2 main roles of the heart?
1.Delivery of blood to the lungs for oxygenation (pulmonary circulation) and 2. Delivery of oxygenated blood around the body (systemic circulation)
Which side of the heart is involved with pulmonary circulation?
Which side of the heart is involved with systemic circulation?
Where are the atria located in relation to the ventricles?
Superior and posteriorly to the ventricles
What forms the apex of the heart?
The base of the left ventricle
What is the role of the left and right pulmonary arteries?
To deliver deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs for oxygenation
What is the role of the 2 left and 2 right pulmonary veins?
To deliver oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium for release in systemic circulation
Where is the heart located?
In the middle mediastinum between ribs 2-5. Anterior to vertebral column and posterior to the sternum.
Where are the lungs located?
On the right and left sides of the mediastinum in the plural cavities
List the main contents of the Middle mediastinum
Heart, trachea, oesophagus , blood vessels
List the divisions of the mediastinum
Superior mediastinum and inferior mediastinum(anterior, middle and posterior mediastinum)
What separates the superior mediastinum from the inferior mediastinum?
The angle of Louis / sternal angle
What is the angle of Louis and what rib articulates at this site?
The level where the body of the sternum and the manubrium join. It extends backward to T4 and T5 vertebra. Rib 2 articulates at this site.
Why can you not palpate rib number 1?
Because it is posterior to the clavicle
List the dimensions of the heart
Right border: right atrium, left border and apex: left ventricle, base: left and right atria
List the layers of the pericardium
Fibrous and serous pericardium.Serous can be divided further into visceral and parietal pericardium. From outermost to innermost: fibrous, parietal , visceral.
Which pericardial layer is also referred to as the epicardium?
Visceral serous pericardium
Where is the pericardial cavity and what is its function?
Space Between the visceral and parietal pericardium. Has serous fluid inside to allow for frictionless movement of the heart as it contracts
What are the main parts of the fibrous skeleton of the heart?
An interatrial and interventricular septum and 4 CT rings that support the cuspid and semilunar valves.
Why is there no fibrous skeleton surrounding the ventricles and atria?
Because it would inhibit the filling of the chambers
Name the expandable flap like part of the atria
Name the ridged muscular area of the auricle that allow for expansion upon filling
Where is the Foramen ovale located in the embryo/ fetus
In the interatrial septum (on the septum secundum)
Name the muscles in the ventricles that assist with the closing of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves?
What attaches the papillary muscles to the tricuspid and bicuspid valves?
Chordae tendinae (heart strings) - collagen
What is the functional role of the cuspid valves?
To direct blood flow through the atria to the ventricles and prevent back flow into the atria
How do the AV valves prevent back flow into the atria??
When blood is directed for the atria to the ventricles, the AV valves are open and relaxed. When the blood is ready to be pumped from the ventricles, the papillary muscles contract alongside the ventricular muscle and pull on the AV valves to close them against the blood flow.
Where are the semilunar valves located?
In the aorta and the pulmonary trunk
How do the semilunar valves function?
They are passive valves. When the ventricles contract , blood is forced into the aorta and the pulmonary trunk. This force pushes the valves open and blood rushes into the vessels. When the ventricles relax, the blood in the vessels flows backwards again the valves and their cusps fill up and prevent it from reenterring the ventricles.
The contraction of a chamber of the heart
Relaxation of heart chamber
List the three layers of artery/ vein walls
Tunica externa (CT), tunica media (smooth muscle) and tunica intima (Simple squamous and areolar tissue)
Name the 3 types of arteries from largest to smallest
Elastic arteries, muscular arteries and arterioles
What is the name given to the smallest type of vein
List the three types of capillaries
Continuous, fenestrated and sinusoid
What is vasculogenesis?
Development of the heart
What week of pregnancy does the heart begin to grow?
What embryological derivative is the heart from?
What are the initial structures of the heart in early embryonic life?
2 endocardial tubes and a dorsal aorta
Name to the layers of the atrial septum
Septum primum and septum secundum,
Where does the Foramen ovale shunt blood away from
Away from lungs to the left side of the heart
What does the Foramen ovale become after birth?
Role of umbilical veins?
Carry oxygen from the placenta to fetus
What does the ductus venous shunt?
What does the ductus arteriosus shunt?
Bypasses the lungs and shunts blood from pulmonary arteries to descending aorta
Which dorsal aorta degenerates?
Superior part of right dorsal aorta
What does the truncus arteriosus connect to?
connects left and right dorsal aorta by aortic arches 1,2,3,4,6
Which aortic arches degenerate
1 and 2
What are the 3 branches of the ascending aorta?
Brachiocephalic, left common carotid and left subclavian
Where does the aorta feed into?
The left ventricle
Where does the pulmonary artery feed into the heart?
The right ventricle