HRM Week 1 Flashcards Preview

MD2011 > HRM Week 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in HRM Week 1 Deck (54):
0

What is the a average amount of blood in the body for males and females

Males:5-6L
Females: 4-5L

1

How much blood are newborn babies born with

250ml of blood

2

What is the PHof blood

7.35-7.45

3

What is the colour of oxygenated blood

Scarlett red to deep red

4

What percentage of blood is plasma?

55%

5

What percentage of plasma is water?

95%

6

Blood represents how much of the total body weight?

8%

7

What percentage of blood is made up of cellular components?

45%

8

What are the three main roles of blood?

Transport, protection and regulation

9

Why do males have a greater amount of RBCs

Because androgens stimulate erythropoiesis

10

What is the difference between serum and plasma?

Plasma has clotting/coagulation proteins where serum has had its removed

11

What word describes the percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells.

Hematocrit

12

After blood is centrifuged, what makes up the buffy coat

White blood cells and platelets because they are less dense

13

Name the yellow breakdown product of heme catabolism that is excreted in bile and urine

Bilirubin

14

Name the three types of plasma proteins and where they are mainly synthesized

Albumin, globulin and fibrinogen - synthesized in liver

15

List the various Globulins chains

Alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma globulins

16

Which is the most abundant protein and its main role

Albumin (60%) transports lipids, bilirubin, fatty acids and steroid hormones

17

What is the role of fibrinogen?

Coagulation (clotting factor 1)

18

At what level is the body considered to have hyperproteinemia ?

Higher than 8g/L

19

List the normal haematocrit scores for males and females (%)

Males: 40-54% and females 38-46%

20

Why do mature erythrocytes not divide?

Because they have no nucleus or organelles required for division to occur

21

How does a RBC metabolise glucose?

90% anaerobic glycolysis, 10% pentose phosphate pathway

22

What is the role of the cytoplasmic enzymes in the RBC

Glucose metabolism, maintain pliability of membrane, maintian transport of. Ions and keep iron in ferrous form

23

Why is the specialised oval, biconcave shape of an RBC important to its role in circulation?

Provides a larger surface area of oxygen and carbon dioxide diffusion and also the flexibility of the RBC membrane allows it to bend and traverse through capillaries much smaller than them

24

Why does insulin not play a role in glucose uptake in the RBC

Because there are no insulin receptors on an RBC

25

Name the three important structural proteins in the RBC membrane

Spectrin, Band 3 and ankyrin

26

What is the erythrocytes sedimentation rate?

The rate at which RBCs settle after being placed into a tall thin vertical tube.

27

What does an increased ESR mean?

There are less RBCs than plasma (decreased hematocrit)

28

What's is the role of carbonic anhydrase in an RBC?

Catalyses the reversible reaction that converts carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid. Most of the carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as bicarbonate ions

29

List the WBCs that are agranulocytes

Monocytes and lymphocytes

30

List the WBCs that are granulocytes

Basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils

31

List some characteristics of leukocytes/ WBCs

Amoeboid movements, diapedis, chemotaxis, phagocytosis

32

What is a band neutrophil

A band neutrophil is a neutrophil still undergoing granulopoiesis. It's nucleus is curved but not yet divided into lobes as is seen in a mature neutrophil

33

What increases neutrophil production?

Inflammation or infection

34

What are platelets

Small colourless anucleated cell fragments that bud off from the cytoplasm of bone marrow megakaryocytes

35

What is thrombocytosis

Increased platelet count

36

What are the properties of platelets?

Adhesion, aggregation and agglutinagion

37

What are the main functions of platelets?

Blood clotting/hemostasis, clot retraction, and repairing the endothelium

38

Describe the histological features of a neutrophil

Fine granules,4-5 lobes in the nucleus (segmented)

39

Describe the histological features of a epsinophil

Course granules , bright red/orange stain, bi lobed nucleus

40

Describe the histological features of a basophil

Dark/bluish , course granules,bilobed nucleus

41

Describe the histological features of a monocyte

Largest of the WBCs ,no granules, oval or kidney shaped nucleus

42

Describe the histological features of a lymphocyte

No granules, kidney shaped nucleus (similar to monocytes but smaller)

43

Which is the most abundant WBC?

Neutrophil (62%)

44

Role of neutrophils?

Inflammatory response, bacterial and viral infections. Phagocytosis to digest bacteria and debris

45

Role of lymphocytes?

T&B lymphocytes . T cells are involved with cell mediate immune response by directly destroying virus invaded cells. B cells are involved with humoursl immunity and produce antibodies

46

Role of monocytes?

Phagocytosis, participation in the inflammation and immune response

47

Role of basophils?

Granules contain histamines and heparin and hyaluronic acid. Important in allergic reactions (histamine) and asa anticoagulant (heparin). Mast cells are tissue basophils

48

Role of eosinophils?

Parasitic worms, allergies- control inflammation and allergic reactions. Respond to IgE to produce acute allergic response.

49

Define Anisocytosis

Where a patients red blood cells are of unequal/varied size

50

Define poikilocytosis

Abnormally shaped red blood cells

51

What is normocytic anemia?

Average volume of RBCs is in normal range but Hb and and hematocrit are decreased

52

What is normochromic anemia?

Normal levels of Hb

53

What blood tests can be done for anemia?

Hematocrit, complete blood count, Hb level,transferrin level,serum ferritin levels