Flashcards in HRM Week 1 Deck (54):
What is the a average amount of blood in the body for males and females
How much blood are newborn babies born with
250ml of blood
What is the PHof blood
What is the colour of oxygenated blood
Scarlett red to deep red
What percentage of blood is plasma?
What percentage of plasma is water?
Blood represents how much of the total body weight?
What percentage of blood is made up of cellular components?
What are the three main roles of blood?
Transport, protection and regulation
Why do males have a greater amount of RBCs
Because androgens stimulate erythropoiesis
What is the difference between serum and plasma?
Plasma has clotting/coagulation proteins where serum has had its removed
What word describes the percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells.
After blood is centrifuged, what makes up the buffy coat
White blood cells and platelets because they are less dense
Name the yellow breakdown product of heme catabolism that is excreted in bile and urine
Name the three types of plasma proteins and where they are mainly synthesized
Albumin, globulin and fibrinogen - synthesized in liver
List the various Globulins chains
Alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma globulins
Which is the most abundant protein and its main role
Albumin (60%) transports lipids, bilirubin, fatty acids and steroid hormones
What is the role of fibrinogen?
Coagulation (clotting factor 1)
At what level is the body considered to have hyperproteinemia ?
Higher than 8g/L
List the normal haematocrit scores for males and females (%)
Males: 40-54% and females 38-46%
Why do mature erythrocytes not divide?
Because they have no nucleus or organelles required for division to occur
How does a RBC metabolise glucose?
90% anaerobic glycolysis, 10% pentose phosphate pathway
What is the role of the cytoplasmic enzymes in the RBC
Glucose metabolism, maintain pliability of membrane, maintian transport of. Ions and keep iron in ferrous form
Why is the specialised oval, biconcave shape of an RBC important to its role in circulation?
Provides a larger surface area of oxygen and carbon dioxide diffusion and also the flexibility of the RBC membrane allows it to bend and traverse through capillaries much smaller than them
Why does insulin not play a role in glucose uptake in the RBC
Because there are no insulin receptors on an RBC
Name the three important structural proteins in the RBC membrane
Spectrin, Band 3 and ankyrin
What is the erythrocytes sedimentation rate?
The rate at which RBCs settle after being placed into a tall thin vertical tube.
What does an increased ESR mean?
There are less RBCs than plasma (decreased hematocrit)
What's is the role of carbonic anhydrase in an RBC?
Catalyses the reversible reaction that converts carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid. Most of the carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as bicarbonate ions
List the WBCs that are agranulocytes
Monocytes and lymphocytes
List the WBCs that are granulocytes
Basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils
List some characteristics of leukocytes/ WBCs
Amoeboid movements, diapedis, chemotaxis, phagocytosis
What is a band neutrophil
A band neutrophil is a neutrophil still undergoing granulopoiesis. It's nucleus is curved but not yet divided into lobes as is seen in a mature neutrophil
What increases neutrophil production?
Inflammation or infection
What are platelets
Small colourless anucleated cell fragments that bud off from the cytoplasm of bone marrow megakaryocytes
What is thrombocytosis
Increased platelet count
What are the properties of platelets?
Adhesion, aggregation and agglutinagion
What are the main functions of platelets?
Blood clotting/hemostasis, clot retraction, and repairing the endothelium
Describe the histological features of a neutrophil
Fine granules,4-5 lobes in the nucleus (segmented)
Describe the histological features of a epsinophil
Course granules , bright red/orange stain, bi lobed nucleus
Describe the histological features of a basophil
Dark/bluish , course granules,bilobed nucleus
Describe the histological features of a monocyte
Largest of the WBCs ,no granules, oval or kidney shaped nucleus
Describe the histological features of a lymphocyte
No granules, kidney shaped nucleus (similar to monocytes but smaller)
Which is the most abundant WBC?
Role of neutrophils?
Inflammatory response, bacterial and viral infections. Phagocytosis to digest bacteria and debris
Role of lymphocytes?
T&B lymphocytes . T cells are involved with cell mediate immune response by directly destroying virus invaded cells. B cells are involved with humoursl immunity and produce antibodies
Role of monocytes?
Phagocytosis, participation in the inflammation and immune response
Role of basophils?
Granules contain histamines and heparin and hyaluronic acid. Important in allergic reactions (histamine) and asa anticoagulant (heparin). Mast cells are tissue basophils
Role of eosinophils?
Parasitic worms, allergies- control inflammation and allergic reactions. Respond to IgE to produce acute allergic response.
Where a patients red blood cells are of unequal/varied size
Abnormally shaped red blood cells
What is normocytic anemia?
Average volume of RBCs is in normal range but Hb and and hematocrit are decreased
What is normochromic anemia?
Normal levels of Hb