Flashcards in CVM Week 8 Deck (36):
Where is renin secreted from?
What does renin act on?
Acts on converting angiotensinogen into angiotensin I
What does the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) act on?
Acts on converting angiotensin 1 into angiotensin II
What are some roles of angiotensin II?
Vasoconstriction, stimulates ADH, stimulates aldosterone
Another name for ADH is?
What causes the release of Artial Natriuretic Peptide?
When the wall of the right atrium is stretched
What is the action of Artial Natriuretic Peptide on on kidneys?
Causes kidneys to excrete sodium and water in the urine, blood volume decreases, blood pressure decreases, stretch on right atrium is relieved
List some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases? What are the two most common risk factors?
Smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, low fruit consumption, high alcohol consumption, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes.
Two most common are physical inactivity and poor diet
In Australia, how many people have at least one cvd risk factor?
What cardiovascular disease is the cause of 52% of deaths (out of the cardiovascular diseases)?
Coronary heart disease
Describe absolute risk?
Risk of developing a disease over a time period.eg. risk of developing cancer within 5 years.
Describe relative risk?
Compares the risk of two groups of people of developing a condition. EG. smokers vs. Non-smokers
What does NNT mean?
Number needed to treat. Number of people needed to take the treatment for one person to benefit from the treatment
List some modifiable risk parameters for cardiovascular disease?
Smoking, blood pressure, serum lipids, nutrition, physical activity level, alcohol intake, BMI
List some non-modifiable risk parameters for cardiovascular disease?
Age,sex,family history, ethnicity, mental health
When is mean arterial blood pressure considered to be hypertensive?
When it is above 100mmHg
What is the formula for calculating MAP?
What is the SP and DP between for grade 1 hypertension?
SP: 140-159 and DP:90-99
What is the SP and DP between for grade 2 hypertension?
SP: 160-179 and DP:100-109
What is the SP and DP between for grade 3 hypertension?
SP: >180 and DP: >110
What percentage of hypertension cases are primary/essential hypertension?
What is primary/essential hypertension correlated with?
high salt diet, drugs (nicotine, alcohol, other) family history, stress, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, atherosclerosis
What is the cause of primary/essential hypertension?
TRICK QUESTION!!!! It is idiopathic!
Whe does secondary hypertension occur?
It is secondary to another medical condition or mediation such as kidney disease, adrenal cortical disorders, oral contraceptives, cocaine, methamphetamines, sympathomimetic medications, erythropoietin
Describe hypertensive crisis
Southern end extreme hypertension.
What is the BP common with hypertensive emergency?
Over 180 mmHg for systolic pressure and over 120Hg for diastolic blood pressure with evidence of end organ damage
What is the BP common with hypertensive urgency?
Over 180 mmHg for systolic pressure and over 100mmHg for diastolic blood pressure with NO evidence of end organ damage
List of reasons why blood pressure varies as you get older?
Age related wearing tear is the primary cause, also atherosclerosis, loss of arterial elasticity, nicotine induced vascular damage.
What could be considered normal BP for an adult over 65 years
What are the steps of treating hypertension?
Determine if it is primary or secondary/pregnancy. Treat/manage pathology of pregnancy. First strategy is lifestyle modification. This includes salt or fat reduced diet,Weight loss, exercise, less alcohol consumption, smoking cessation.
If blood pressure isn't fixed by lifestyle modifications what can you do (five examples)
Add pharmacological interventions such as Ace inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, aldosterone receptor blockers, diuretics, calcium channel antagonists, alpha and beta receptor blockers
Define circulatory shock?
Dramatic, haemodynamic and metabolic disturbances caused by inadequate blood supply and or oxygen delivery. May result from hypovolemia, cardiogenic effects, change in blood distribution
List the three stages of shock?
Compensated, progressive, irreversible
Describe compensated shock?
When the body attempts to compensate for reduced flow or oxygen delivery and can successfully restore bp to normal. Normally resolves within hours without any intervention
Describe progressive shock?
Beyond a certain point, shock creates more shock. Compensatory mechanisms can no longer maintain sufficient BP to prevent cardiovascular deterioration of collapse.