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Flashcards in Week 3 Resp Deck (72):
0

Describe the 4 main steps of the oxygen cascade

1.Aspiration of air into lungs
2. Diffusion of oxygen from the air into the red blood cells
3. Circulation of red blood cells around the body
4. Diffusion of oxygen from the red blood cells into the mitochondria for cellular use ( TCA cycle)

1

Describe the 4 main steps of the carbon dioxide movement

1. Diffusion of carbon dioxide from the mitochondria to the blood
2. Circulation of carbon dioxide in blood
3. Diffusion of carbon dioxide from blood to lungs
4. Expiration of air with carbon dioxide from lungs

2

What is pulmonary ventilation?

The physical movement of air into and out of the lungs

3

What components make up the conducting zone of the respiratory system?

Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, nose, mouth, nasopharynx

4

What components make up the respiratory zone of the respiratory system?

Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli

5

What are the main roles of the conducting zone?

Conduct, warm, cleanse and humidify the air. Allow movement of air to alveoli. NO gas exchange

6

What are the main roles of the respiratory zone?

.

7

Breathing directly into trachea (tracheostomy) results in what?

Cooling and drying of the respiratory membranes and serious lung crusting and infection.

8

What is another name for nasal conchae and what is their role with filter and particle deposition?

Nasal turbinates- creates turbulence which helps deposit particles in the nose. It also reduces respiratory water and heat loss.

9

What sized particles can enter the lungs?

Particles <6micrometres

10

What is airway patency?

Keeping the airways open to promote movement of air

11

What structures assist with airway patency?

Trachea- cartilage rings
Bronchi- less extensive cartilage plates
Bronchioles- pressure gradients and radial traction with collagen and least in fibers from the surrounding tissues(lung parenchyma)

12

List two things that can occur due to problems with upper airway patency

Snoring and sleep apnoea

13

List two things that can occur due to problems with lower airway patency

Obstructive lung disorders such as emphysema or asthma

14

List a problem than can occur with alveolar patency?

Infant respiratory distress syndrome (lack of surfactant in premature babies)

15

How is pressure created in the respiratory system?

By molecules of air colliding with the walls of their container and with eachother

16

What is boyles law?

Inverse relationship between gas volume and pressure.Gasses move form areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure

17

Why is the lung pleura essential for normal airflow?

Sucks the lungs out towards the chest wall and keeps the lungs moving with the chest wall. Negative intrapleural pressure helps to keep lungs patent

18

What is a pneumothorax?

Accumulation of air in the pleural cavity.Can be penetrating or non penetrating or spontaneous. It restricts lung expansion

19

What is the normal intrapleural pressure? In mm Hg

-4mmHg

20

Which direction to the lungs and ribs naturally want to recoil?

Ribs want to recoil outwards and lungs want to recoil inwards (collapse)

21

Define transmittal pressure

Pressure across the airway wall or across the lung wall

22

Describe what happens during inhalation

Diaphragm contracts and moves inferiorly. External intercostal contract and move ribs upward and out. Thoracic cavity increases, pressure decreases and air flows in.

23

Describe the process of expiration.

Elastic recoil of lung tissue when muscles relax. Decrease in lung volume and increased lung pressure. Air flows out.

24

Why is expiration normally passive?

It is passive as no energy is required, uses elastic recoil of ribs and lungs

25

What is normal atmospheric pressure

760mmHg

26

What is intrapulmonary pressure during inhalation?

759mmHg as pressure has decreased allowing for air to rush in

27

What is normal intrapulmonary pressure during exhalation? (In mmHg)

761mmHg as pressure has increased in lungs and air is now rushing out to lower conc.

28

Goes intrapleural pressure become more or less negative upon inspiration?

More negative

29

List the two main muscles involved in inspiration and what type of process this is?

Diaphragm and external intercostals. Active process as it requires energy to contract the respiratory muscles

30

List the 3 main muscles involved in forced expiration and what type of process this is?

Abdominal muscles, internal intercostals and innermost internal intercostals. Active, uses muscles to increase speed of air leaving the lungs uses energy

31

Describe quiet breathing.

Also called eupnea/ normal breathing. Inspiration involves diaphragm and external intercostals in varying degrees. Expiration is passive with elastic recoil

32

Describe forced breathing

Active expiration using internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. Inspiration involves diaphragm, external intercostals and accessory respiratory muscles.

33

Define hyperpnoea

Increase in breathing via rate or depth of both

34

Define hyperventilation

Increase in ventilation above predicted metabolic rate (over breathing)

35

Is an increase in breathing seen in running hyperpnoea or hyperventilation?

Hyperpnoea. Breathing is increased to match increase in metabolic rate

36

Define tidal volume

The amount of air inhaled in one breath at rest ~500mL

37

Define respiratory rate (f)

Number of breaths per minute

38

What term means the amount of air MOVED each minute?

Minute Ventilation

39

Approximately how much air in mL stays in the conducting zone and does not participate in gas exchange?

~150mL

40

Define dead space (Vd)

Amount of air in conducting zone

41

What is alveolar ventilation?

Amount of air reaching alveolar each minute

42

How do you measure ventilation?

By using spirometry

43

How many respiratory volumes are there?

4

44

Define expiratory reserve Volume ERV

Amount of additional air than you can force out of your lungs after you have expired normally (~1000mL)

45

Define inspiratory reserve Volume IRV

Amount of additional air that you can inhale after you have inhaled normally (~1900-3300mL)

46

Define residual volume RV

Amount of air left in lungs after a maximum expiration (you can't fully empty your lungs) (~1100mL)

47

Define inspiratory capacity (IC)

Amount of air that you can draw into your lungs after you have completed a normal expiration (tidal volume + IRV)

48

Define functional residual capacity FRC

Amount of air remaining in the lungs after you have expired normally. ERV +RV

49

Define Vital Capacity? (VC)

Max amount of air you can move into and out of the lungs? (ERV + VT + IRV)

50

Total lung capacity TLC

Total volume in lungs VC+ RV

51

Define compliance

Ease of expansion of lungs

52

Does a lung with high compliance or low compliance require greater pressure to achieve the same change in volume?

Low compliance (stiff lung). Need to recruit more muscles to create a greater negative intrapulmonary pressure. More energetically costly

53

What does lung compliance depend on?

Pulmonary connective tissue
Surfactant
Thoracic cage mobility

54

At rest, how much of the bodies energy demands does ventilation represent?

3-5%

55

Finish this sentence : cost (energetic cost) of ventilation increases when....

Tidal volume increases, compliance decreases, increase in airway resistance occurs

56

What is airflow resistance work associated with?

The friction that air encounters as it travels down the airways

57

What is elastic work of breathing associated with?

An increase in volume of thoracic cavity (diaphragm and muscle activity) increases elastic cost

58

What happens to work of breathing if lung compliance decreases?

Elastic cost of breathing increases, increasing tidal volume becomes costly, patients at rest tend to adopt high rate and low tidal volume breathing to minimise costs of breathing

59

What happens to work of breathing if airways narrow/ airway patency decreases?

Airflow resistance increases, increasing rate of breathing becomes costly , patients at rest tend to adopt low rate and high tidal volume breathing to minimise costs of breathing

60

Why are apnoeas in an obstructive sleep apnoea patient only present during sleep and not when they are awake?

Activity of upper airway dilator muscles is reduced during sleep which increases the tendency for upper airways of narrow during sleep. When asleep on back, tongue and soft palate may fall back into upper airway causing partial blockage (and snoring)

61

How does CPAP help with OSA patients?

CPAP pushes air into the upper airways. The positive pressure keeps the airway from collapsing where activity of the upper airway dilator muscles are reduced during sleep.

62

What formula can be used to predict vital capacity?

VC=0.064(H)-0.031(A)-5.335 (MALE)


VC=0.052(H)-0.018(A)-4.36 (FEMALE)

63

What formula can be used to predict total lung capacity?

TLC=0.094(H)-0.015(A)-9.167 (MALE)
TLC=0.079(H)-0.008(A)-7.49 (FEMALE)

64

What formula can be used to predict residual volume?

RV = VC x factor

65

Name the 3 factors for predicting residual volume

16-34: 0.25
35-49: o.305
50-59: 0446

66

What is the most common cause of daytime sleepiness

Obstructive sleep apnoea

67

How many people with a BMI over 30 had obstructive sleep apnea

50%

68

For apnoea to be considered clinical important, how many times per hour

Lasting longer than 10 seconds and occurring more than 5 times per hour

69

List some treatment options for sleep apnoa

Weight loss, surgery, dental appliances or breathing assistance (eg CPAP)

70

What is central sleep apnoea often a consequence of?

Vascular disease (eg stroke)

71

Define central sleep apnoea

A neurological condition cussing the cessation of all respiratory effort during sleep