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List the two hormones in pregnancy that alter respiratory function?

Increased estrogen: causes fluid retention and edema throughout the airway mucosa and stimulates mucous gland hyperplasia, also increases blood volume (increases oxygen delivery)

Increased progesterone: sensitises Central chemoreceptors resulting in decreases pulmonary carbon dioxide and increased pH


What does relative hyperventilation of mother help with?

Aids clearance of fetal co2


Is there any significant change in PaO2 in the mother?



What can happen in pregnancy in regards to asthma?

Altered hormone levels may affect asthma control. (Can improve, worsen or stay the same). Airway hyperactivity can be increased but generally returns to pre-pregnancy levels with red months postpartum


What affects respiratory mechanics in mother in the last trimester? Also how is loss of lung function this partially offset?

Enlarging of the uterus. Diaphragm is displaced by the chephalad which decreases RV , decreases ERV, decreases IRV, decreases FRC.

Partially offset by increased anterior-posterior and transverse diameters of the chest and widening of subcostal angles


What's happens to VC and FEV1 in pregnancy?

Stay the same


When in weeks does an infant have a chance of surviving if premature?

26-27 weeks and over. This is during transition from canalicular to saccular


What secretes lung fluid?

Alveolar epithelial cells


What is the primary role of lung liquid?

To flush out debris out of lung and prevent developing tissues from collapsing. Appears to maintain a positive pressure relative to amniotic fluid, resulting in lung expansion responsible for stimulating cell division and lung growth


When do attempted respiratory movements begin to take place in the fetus?

By the end of first trimester . Increase in frequency from 22-35 weeks gestation


When are respiratory movements inhabited in the fetus and what is the point of this?

During last 7 days - helps to prevent lungs filling with fluid as well as debris from the meconium(first stool). Excreted into amniotic fluid


What type of Hb makes up 70% of all the Hb in a newborn?

Fetal Hb - HbF


Which has a higher oxygen affinity? Adult or fetal Hb?

Fetal Hb - designed to operative at a lover PO2


When is HbF replaced by adult Hb?

By 6 months of age


When do the majority of babies take their first breath?

Within the first 20s and have established a normal rhythm by 90 seconds


What allows air to be drawn into the lungs in birth?

Thoracic compression during vaginal delivery followed by elastic recoil of rib cage.


What are the major stimuli to breathing in newborns?

Largely unknown but cooling of skin and mechanical stimulation (via respiratory centre)


At birth where does fluid in lungs go?

Epithelial cells in lungs switch from secreting the lung fluid to absorption of fluid


How much pressure is required to oppose surface tension and open the alveoli for the first time?

25mmHg negative pressure


Why is it important that infant doesn't expel all their air in first expiration?

May cause alveoli to collapse and be retained like that by dynamic airway compression


How is surface tension created in the alveoli?

Attraction of water molecules in the alveolar fluid . h2O is more attracted to eachother than to air,


Where is surface tension directed towards in the alveoli?

The centre - acts to prevent alveoli being overstretched


What would happen if alveoli were lined by water alone?

Airway collapse as water attractive forces so strong


What's does surfactant do regarding surface tension?

Reduces surface tension by physically getting in the way of water molecules


What is surfactant made up of?

90% lipids, rest is proteins and carbohydrates


What is the most important lipid in surfactant and what is it responsible for?

DPPC- responsible for surfactants effect on surface area


Where is surfactant synthesized?

Type 11 alveolar cells


Half life of surfactant?

15-30 hours


Other roles of surfactant ?

May have a role in lung defence (antiviral/bacterial), protein component may increase phagocytosis of bacteria and viruses . May assist with mucocillary escalator


What do preterm lungs look lime?

Smaller, less developed


What's is the percentages of babies getting IRDS if born in the 34-37 weeks



What's is the percentages of babies getting IRDS if born in the 30-34 weeks



What's is the percentages of babies getting IRDS if born in the 30 weeks

70 %


What is infant respiratory distress syndrome also called

Hyaline membrane disease


What is the pria ray cause of IRDS?

Lack of pulmonary surfactant leading to decreased compliance and an increased surface tension


Explain mechanical ventilation for IRDS and some risks?

1. CPAP and PEEP:
Physically moving oxygen into lungs via a device.
Can decrease alveolarizarion, increased collagen deposition and bronchial smooth muscle,

2. Exogenous surfactant: good but 30% cases don't respond to treatment


List some pulmonary complications with IRDS ?

Alveolar rupture: pneumothorax, interstitial emphysema

Persistent pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary haemorrhage ↑risk ↓gestational age, esp. post surfactant therapy

Apnoea of prematurity is common, ↑ incidence with surfactant therapy


List other complications with IRDS ?

Trauma to vocal cords from tracheal intubation
•Intracranial haemorrhage: ↑risk with mechanical ventilation
•PDA especially if weaned rapidly after surfactant therapy
•Necrotising enterocolitis and/or gastrointestinal perforation


What is bronchi pulmonary displasia?

When oxygen is required at a corrected gestational age 36 weeks and over. Due to injury from mechanical ventilation


Other chronic problems with IRDS?

Retinopathy,neurological impairment


What is Cheney stokes breathing?

Periodic breathing of hyper, hypo estimation and the apnea. Common in premature a


When is a respiratory pause termed as an apnea?

Over 20 seconds


Why does sudden unexplained death in infancy usually occur

During sleep


What is sudden infant death syndrome?

Death of a baby under 1 year of age, remains vs unexplained forever even after autopsy


She is peak incidence for SIDS?



Due to a public health campaign in Australia, what was the percentage reduction in SIDS in australia?

83% reduction.


What causes SIDS?

Multi factorial