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Flashcards in Week 3 Resp Deck (72)
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Describe the 4 main steps of the oxygen cascade

1.Aspiration of air into lungs
2. Diffusion of oxygen from the air into the red blood cells
3. Circulation of red blood cells around the body
4. Diffusion of oxygen from the red blood cells into the mitochondria for cellular use ( TCA cycle)


Describe the 4 main steps of the carbon dioxide movement

1. Diffusion of carbon dioxide from the mitochondria to the blood
2. Circulation of carbon dioxide in blood
3. Diffusion of carbon dioxide from blood to lungs
4. Expiration of air with carbon dioxide from lungs


What is pulmonary ventilation?

The physical movement of air into and out of the lungs


What components make up the conducting zone of the respiratory system?

Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, nose, mouth, nasopharynx


What components make up the respiratory zone of the respiratory system?

Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli


What are the main roles of the conducting zone?

Conduct, warm, cleanse and humidify the air. Allow movement of air to alveoli. NO gas exchange


What are the main roles of the respiratory zone?



Breathing directly into trachea (tracheostomy) results in what?

Cooling and drying of the respiratory membranes and serious lung crusting and infection.


What is another name for nasal conchae and what is their role with filter and particle deposition?

Nasal turbinates- creates turbulence which helps deposit particles in the nose. It also reduces respiratory water and heat loss.


What sized particles can enter the lungs?

Particles <6micrometres


What is airway patency?

Keeping the airways open to promote movement of air


What structures assist with airway patency?

Trachea- cartilage rings
Bronchi- less extensive cartilage plates
Bronchioles- pressure gradients and radial traction with collagen and least in fibers from the surrounding tissues(lung parenchyma)


List two things that can occur due to problems with upper airway patency

Snoring and sleep apnoea


List two things that can occur due to problems with lower airway patency

Obstructive lung disorders such as emphysema or asthma


List a problem than can occur with alveolar patency?

Infant respiratory distress syndrome (lack of surfactant in premature babies)


How is pressure created in the respiratory system?

By molecules of air colliding with the walls of their container and with eachother


What is boyles law?

Inverse relationship between gas volume and pressure.Gasses move form areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure


Why is the lung pleura essential for normal airflow?

Sucks the lungs out towards the chest wall and keeps the lungs moving with the chest wall. Negative intrapleural pressure helps to keep lungs patent


What is a pneumothorax?

Accumulation of air in the pleural cavity.Can be penetrating or non penetrating or spontaneous. It restricts lung expansion


What is the normal intrapleural pressure? In mm Hg



Which direction to the lungs and ribs naturally want to recoil?

Ribs want to recoil outwards and lungs want to recoil inwards (collapse)


Define transmittal pressure

Pressure across the airway wall or across the lung wall


Describe what happens during inhalation

Diaphragm contracts and moves inferiorly. External intercostal contract and move ribs upward and out. Thoracic cavity increases, pressure decreases and air flows in.


Describe the process of expiration.

Elastic recoil of lung tissue when muscles relax. Decrease in lung volume and increased lung pressure. Air flows out.


Why is expiration normally passive?

It is passive as no energy is required, uses elastic recoil of ribs and lungs


What is normal atmospheric pressure



What is intrapulmonary pressure during inhalation?

759mmHg as pressure has decreased allowing for air to rush in


What is normal intrapulmonary pressure during exhalation? (In mmHg)

761mmHg as pressure has increased in lungs and air is now rushing out to lower conc.


Goes intrapleural pressure become more or less negative upon inspiration?

More negative


List the two main muscles involved in inspiration and what type of process this is?

Diaphragm and external intercostals. Active process as it requires energy to contract the respiratory muscles