Cardiovascular System and Blood Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology > Cardiovascular System and Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System and Blood Deck (102):
1

Vascular tissue

aka blood

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What makes up blood

blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix (blood plasma)

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blood fibers

soluble proteins that are only apparent during blood clotting

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blood functions

transports nutrients, wastes, respiratory gases, and other substances throughout the body

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physical characteristics of blood

sticky opaque fluid with metallic taste
-color varies (scarlet means o2 rich, dull red means o2 poor)
-heavier than water, 5x more viscous
-alkaline w/ pH b/w 7.35 and 7.45
Temp is higher than body temp slightly
-accounts for 8% of body weight

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What components make up the blood

erythrocytes
luekocytes
platelets
plasma

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erythrocytes

RBC
transport o2
normal count is 5 million/mm3
when rbc increases, blood viscosity increases, vice versa

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leukocytes

WBC
protect
only complete cell in blood (contain both nuclei and organelles)
typical count is 4,000 to 11,000 per mm3

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platelets

cell fragments(megakaryocytes) for blood clotting
normal count is 300,000/mm3

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percentage blood composition

45% erythrocytes
55% plasma
<1% RBC and platelets

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hematocrit

percentage of RBC in blood

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plasma

-90% water w/ other substances
-most plasma proteins made by liver and serve various functions
-albumin
-clotting proteins
-antibodies

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albumin

maintains osmotic pressure (water in bloodstream)

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clotting proteins

stops blood loss from injury

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antibodies

protects body from pathogens

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Direct Cause: Decrease in RBC number
Resulting From: sudden hemorrhage, lysis of rbcs as a result of bacterial infections, lack of vitamin b12, depression/destruction of bone marrow by cancer, radiation, or certain medications
Leading To....

-Hemorrhagic anemia
-hemolytic anemia
-pernicious anemia
-aplastic anemia

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Direct Cause: Inadequate hemoglobin content in rbcs
Resulting From: Lack of iron in diet or slow/prolonged bleeding
Leading to...

iron-deficiency anemia

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Direct cause: abnormal hemoglobin in rbcs
Resulting from: genetic defect leads to abnormal hemoglobin
leading to....

sickle-cell anemia

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polycythemia

abnormal increase in rbcs
-can be a result of bone marrow cancer of can occur from living at high altitudes where air is thin and o2 is less available
-blood is extremely viscous, limiting flow and circulation

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diapedesis

move into and out of blood vessels (leukocytes)

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leukocytosis

wbc count above 11,000 mm3
-happens during bacterial or viral infection

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leukopenia

abnormally low wbc
-certain drugs cause this (corticosteroids and anti cancer agents)

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leukemia

bone marrow becomes cancerous, causes huge number of wbcs to form rapidly
-new wbcs are immature and can't carry out normal protective functions
-body becomes easy prey for disease-causing bacteria and viruses

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WBC classification

-granulocytes
-neutrophils
-eosinophils
-basophils
-agranulocytes
-lymphocytes
-monocytes

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granulocytes

granule-containing wbcs
have lobed nuclei

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neutrophils

phagocytes for acute infections

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eosinophils

allergies and infections by parasitic worms

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basophils

contains inflammatory chemical (histamine) to trigger presence of wbc

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lymphocytes

immune response in lymphatic tissue (B-produces antibodies;t-graft rejection, fights tumors and viruses, activates B)

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agranulocytes

lack cytoplasmic granules

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monocytes

macrophage against chronic infections

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hematopoiesis

blood cell formation
-occurs in red bone marrow

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where does hematopoiesis occur in adults

flat bones of skull, pelvis, ribs, sternum, and epiphyses of humerus and femur

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where does hematopoiesis occur in children

diaphysis of long bones

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hemocytoblasts

blood stem cells
-can form lymphoid stem cell or myeloid stem cell

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lymphoid stem cell

forms lymphocytes

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myeloid stem cell

forms all other formed elements

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creation of rbc

rbcs continue to divide, so large production of hemoglobin
-when enough hemoglobin is produced, organelles are ejected out and cell collapses inward (produces reticulocyte-contains ER)
-w/in 2 days, eject remaining ER and become fully functional

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what controls rate of hematopoiesis

erythropoietin

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hemostasis

stoppage of blood flow

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3 major phases of hemostasis

1.platelet plug forms
2.vascular spasms occur
3.coagulation occurs

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thromboplastin

clotting factor

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undesirable clotting

-thrombus
-embolus

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thrombus

clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel

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embolus

clot that breaks away from the vessel wall and floats freely in the blood stream

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bleeding disorders

thrombocytopenia
-hemophilia

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thrombocytopenia

results from insufficient platelets causing numerous small bleedings

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hemophilia

hereditary bleeding disorders that result from lack of needed clotting factors

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Antigen

foreign substance in the body

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agglutination

clogging of small blood vessels
occurs when blood is transfused with different antigens

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Rh blood groups

-rh+ carries rh antigen
-rh- does not carry rh antigen

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development of blood

before birth, hematopoiesis occurs in many areas
-by birth, hematopoiesis occurs in red marrow
-after birth, fetal rbcs are replaced by mature rbcs
-increasing ages are at more risk for leukemias, anemias, and blood clot disease

53

anatomy of heart(location)

-size of a person's fist
-weighs less than a pound
-apex points to left hip, resting on diaphragm between each lung
-base points to the right shoulder and lies beneath second rib

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coverings of heart

-enclosed by pericardium
-serous fluid is produced to help heart beat in frictionless environment

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parietal pericardium

loosely around base of heart, reinforced by dense connective tissue
-used for protection and anchorage

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3 layers of heart wall

endocardium
myocardium
epicardium

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pulmonary circuit

superior and inferior vena cava receive o2 poor blood that empties into the right atrium thru right ventricle, thru the tricuspid valve to the pulmonary arteries

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systemic circtuit

blood pumps out of heart into aorta supplying blood to all tissues of the body
-o2 poor blood enters back to right atrium thru systemic veins and empty into vena cava

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valves

allow blood to flow one direction

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Atrioventricular valves

located between atrial and ventricular chambers
-open during heart relaxation
-close when ventricles contract

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chordae tendinae

heart strings
-close valves when BP increases inside ventricles

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semilunar valves

guard bases of two large arteries leaving ventricular chambers
-each have 3 flaps
-closed during heart relaxation
-forced open when ventricles contract

63

cardiac circulation

coronary arteries supply o2 to myocardium
-cardiac veins drain myocardium, emptying into coronary sinus, which empties into right atrium

64

different portions of heart beat separately

atrial 60 bpm
ventricular 20-40 bpm

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intrinsic conduction system

composed of special tissue crossed between muscle and nervous tissue
-causes heart muscle depolarization in one direction
-enforces contraction rate (75 bpm)
-Impulse spreads from SA node to AV node

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SA node

sinoatrial node
pacemaker

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av node

atrioventricular node

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AV node damage leads to...

release ventricles from control of sa node, causing ventricles to beat at own rate

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sa node damage leads to..

slower heart rate

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ischemia

lack of adequate blood supply to heart
leads to fibrillation

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fibrillation

rapid uncoordinated shuddering in heart muscles

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tachycardia

rapid heart rate over 100 bpm

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bradycardia

slow heart rate less than 60 bpm

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systole

ventricle contraction of heart

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diastole

ventricle relaxation of heart

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cardiac cycle

all events of one complete heartbeat
approx .8 sec

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3 phases of cardiac cycle

1. mid-to late diastole
2. ventricular systole
3. early diastole

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Cardiac output

amount of Blood pumped out by each side of heart in1 minute
-determined by heart rate and stroke volume

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stroke volume

volume of blood pumped by ventricle with each heartbeat

80

congestive heart failure

pumping efficiency of heart is depressed so circulation is inadequate
-reflects weakening of heart by athersclerosis, hypertension, or multiple MIs

81

3 tunics of blood vessels

-tunica interna
-tunica media
-tunica externa

82

arterior walls

thicker tunica media to withstand high pressure

83

lumens of veins

larger, more skeletal muscle activity, respiratory pump due to low BP

84

Capillaries

only have tunica media for gas exchange efficiency

85

arterial pulse locations

brachial artery
radial
popliteal
posterior tibial
temporal
facial
carotid
femoral
dorsalis pedis

86

Blood pressure

pressure blood exerts against inner walls of vessels, keeping blood circulating continuously even between heartbeats
-uses auscultatory method

87

factors on bp

relies on cardiac output and peripheral resistance

88

peripheral resistance

amount of friction encountered by blood as it flows thru vessels

89

normal systolic pressure

b/w 110-140 mm Hg

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normal diastolic

75-80 mm Hg

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hypotension

systolic <100

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orthostatic hypotension

dizziness when rising

93

hypertension

140/90 or higher

94

development of cardiovascular system

heart begins as neural tube
-beats by 4th week of pregnancy
-by 7th week, becomes 4 chambered heart w/ shunted lungs and liver
-at birth, shunts become blocked, heart function begins
-as we age, venous valves weaken, varicose veins, progressive athersclerosis
-at least 30% of pop have hypertension by 50
-heart diseases caused death in more than half pop 65+

95

Pericarditis

What: inflammation of pericardium
Cause: decrease in serous fluid
Complication: adhesions in heart wall

96

Incompetent Valve

What: allows blood to leak back into previous chamber
Cause: heartstrings not working, issues contracting, congenital
Complication: backflow of blood, poor circulation

97

Valvular Stenosis

What: stiffening of valve
Cause: multiple bacterial infections
Complication: need valve replacement

98

Myocardial infarction

What: heart attack
Cause: one or more coronary arteries become blocked, overuse, stress, poor diet
Complication: death, weakening of heart

99

athersclerosis

What: clogging of vessels
Cause: cholesterol and fat deposits
Complication: heart disease of any kind, aneurysms

100

murmur

What: abnormal sounds
Cause: thin heart walls
Complication: valve replacement, bp issues, heart attack

101

congestive heart failure

What: weakens b/c of overuse
Cause: athersclerosis, hypertension, poor diet, poor exercise
Complication: pulmonary edema and suffocation or edema in body, heart failure

102

thrombophlebitis

What: clot in a vessel that can't get out
Cause: increased blood viscosity clot already there
Complication: pulmonary embolism, suffocation