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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (96):
1

structural classification of nervous system

CNS and PNS

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Functional classification of nervous system

sensory (afferent) division and motor (efferent) division

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CNS

-brain and spinal cord
-act as integration and command center of nervous system
-interprets incoming sensory information & issues instructions based on past experiences and current conditions

4

PNS

-spinal nerves and cranial nerves
-serve as communication lines, linking all parts of body

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spinal nerves

impulses to and from spinal cord

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cranial nerves

impulses to and from brain

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sensory division

-aka afferent division
-nerves that convey impulses to CNS
-skin, skeletal muscle, and joints: somatic sensory fibers
-visceral organs: visceral sensory fibers

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motor division

-aka efferent division
-carries impulses from cns to effector organs, muscles, and glands
-brings about a motor response
-divided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

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somatic nervous system

-allows for the conscious control of skeletal muscle
-voluntary nervous system

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autonomic nervous system

-regulates involuntary events, such as cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
-involuntary nervous system
-contains sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

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2 types of cells nervous system is made up of

supporting cells and neurons

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supporting cells

aka neuroglia
-includes many types of glia that provide support, insulate, and protect neurons
-don't transmit impulses
-never lose ability to divide

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neurons

-transmit impulses
-can not divide

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astrocytes

-in CNS
-contains numerous projections that anchor them between capillaries and neurons, exchanging materials between them
-protects and controls chemical environment of brain

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microglia

-In CNS
-spiderlike phagocytes that dispose of debris

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ependymal cells

-in CNS
-line cavities of brain and spinal cord using cilia to circulate cerebral spinal fluid and to form a protective cushion around cns

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oligodendrocytes

in CNS
-contains flat extensions to wrap tightly around nerve fibers
-fatty insulation covers

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schwann cells

in PNS
-form from myelin sheaths around nerve fibers

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satellite cells

-act as protective cushioning cells

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neuron anatomy

cell body
at least one process extending from body
myelin

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cell body

contains nucleus
acts as metabolic center
lots of ER and neurofibrils

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processes

used in messaging
-dendrites
-axons

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dendrites

convey message toward cell body

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axons

conduct impulse away from cell body

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sensory neurons

carry impulses to cns
aka afferent neurons
cutaneous sense receptors
proprioreceptors

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cutaneous sense receptors

detect pain with heat, cold, or pressure

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proprioreceptors

receptors of muscles and tendons
detect amount of stretch/tension

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motor neurons

efferent neurons
carry impulse to muscle or gland

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association neurons

aka interneurons
connect motor and sensory neurons

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multipolar neuron

neuron with several processes
motor and association neurons

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bipolar neuron

2 processes
have one axon, one dendrite
receptors in only adult eye and ear

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unipolar neuron

one process (very short)
process divides into proximal and distal fibers (conducts impulse towards and away from cell body)
sensory neurons in pns ganglia

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2 types of impulses

irritability and conductivity

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irritability

neurons use sodium-potassium pump inside cells to create difference in charges

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conductivity

ability to transmit impulse to other neurons, muscles, or glands

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reflexes

-rapid, predictable, involuntary response to stimuli
-occur over neural pathways called reflex arcs
-autonomic and somatic

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reflex arcs

contain sensory receptor, effector organ, afferent and efferent neurons, and integration center

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autonomic reflex

regulate activity of smooth muscles, heart, and glands
-ex: salivary and pupillary reflex

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somatic

stimulate skeletal muscles
-ex: pull hand away from hot surface

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cranial nerves

-olfactory
-optic
-oculomotor
-trochlear
-trigeminal
-abducens
-facial
-vestibulocochlear
-glossopharyngeal
-vagus
-accessory
-hypoglossal

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olfactory nerve function

sensory; sense of smell

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optic nerve function

vision

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oculomotor nerve function

supplies motor fibers to 4 of the 6 muscles that move the eyeball

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trochlear nerve function

supplies motor fibers for superior oblique eye muscle

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trigeminal nerve function

conducts sensory impulses from skin of face, mucosa of nose, mouth

-activates chewing

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abducens nerve function

supplies motor fibers to lateral rectus muscle

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facial nerve function

activates muscles of facial expression, lacrimal & salivary glands, sensory impulse from taste buds of anterior tongue

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vestibulocochlear nerve function

balance and hearing

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glossopharyngeal nerve function

promote swallowing and saliva production

carries impulse from taste buds (posterior tongue) and pressure receptors of carotid artery

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vagus nerve function

impulses to and from pharynx, larynx, and viscera

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accessory nerve function

activate sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

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hypoglossal nerve function

control tongue movements

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4 major nerve plexi

cervical
brachial
lumbar
sacral

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major nerve within cervical plexus

phrenic

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major nerve within brachial plexus

axillary
radial
median
musculocutaneous
ulnar

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major nerve within lumbar plexus

femoral
obturator

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major nerve within sacral plexus

sciatic
superior
inferior gluteal

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distribution of cervical nerve plexus

diaphragm and muscles of shoulder and neck

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distribution of brachial nerve plexus

deltoid
triceps
forearm extensor
hand muscles
arm flexors
wrist muscles

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distribution of lumbar nerve plexus

lower abdomen
buttocks
anterior thighs
skin of antermedial leg and thigh
adductor muscles of medial thigh
small hip muscles
skin of medial thigh
hip joint

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distribution of sacral nerve plexus

lower trunk
posterior surface of thigh
lateral leg and foot
posterior leg and foot
gluteus muscles of hip

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function of sympathetic division of ANS

mobilizes body during extreme situations
fight or flight
heart rate/blood pressure increase
lung bronchioles dilate
blood vessels dilate
withdrawal of blood from digestive organs

63

function of parasympathetic division

most active when body is at rest
bp and heart rate regulated at normal level

64

factors that may harm brain development

smoking/alcohol/drugs

65

why does our brain decline as we age

neurons can't regenerate so as they die, the sympathetic nervous system becomes less efficient. shrinking can be quickened by alcoholism or boxing, which leads to senility

66

how does cns develop from embryonic to adult form

-first appears as neural tube
-begins to form during first month of embryonic development
-hypothalamus matures the latest
-brain reaches max weight in young adulthood
-then begins to disintegrate

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four major regions of brain

cerebral hemisphere
cerebellum
brain stem
diencephalon

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gyri

elevated rides of tissue (brain wrinkles)

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sulci

shallow groves of tissue (brain wrinkles)

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fissures

deep grooves of tissue (brain wrinkles)

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four lobes of cerebral hemisphere

frontal
parietal
occipital
temporal

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frontal lobe function

skeletal muscle movement
decision making

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parietal lobe function

recognize pain, cold, light touch

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temporal lobe function

auditory

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occipital lobe function

vision

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broca's area

-found on anterior portion of frontal lobe (precentral gyrus)
-helps us speak

77

corpus callosum

-large fiber tract that connects the cerebral hemispheres
-allows them to communicate with one another

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3 major structures of diencephalon

-thalamus
-hypothalamus
-epithalamus

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thalamus function

relay station for sensory impulses passing upward to sensory cortex

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hypothalamus function

plays a role in regulating body temp, water balance, and metabolism

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epithalamus function

forms cerebral spinal fluid and aids in parts of endocrine system
regulates emotions/drives secretion of melatonin

82

what are the three structures of the brain stem

midbrain
pons
medulla oblongata

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midbrain function

vision and hearing

84

pons

control breathing

85

medulla oblongata

regulates visceral activities, heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing, swallowing, vomiting

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reticular formation

extends entire length of brain stem.
involved in motor control of visceral organs
damage can cause permanent unconsciousness

87

cerebellum function

-provides precise timing for skeletal muscle activity
-controls balance and equilibrium

88

cranial bones

encase brain to prevent severe damage

89

meninges

made up of dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater

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dura mater

double-layered membrane that surrounds brain

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arachnoid mater

threadlike extensions that span subarachnoid space to attach to pia mater

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pia mater

clings to brain surface and spinal cord

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cerebrospinal fluid

'broth' made up of protein, vitamin c, ions
formed from blood that continuously circulates throughout brain

94

blood-brain barrier

composed of least permeable capillaries prevents metabolic waste from entering brain tissue

95

four spinal nerve regions

cervical
thoracic
lumbar
sacral

96

what is the cauda equina

collection of spinal nerves at inferior end of the vertebral canal