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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (52):
1

Alveoli

terminal air sacs that exchange gases with the blood

2

Conducting passageways that purify, humidify, and warm incoming air

nose
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
bronchioles
lungs

3

nose

-interior consists of nasal cavity divided by nasal septum
-mucus moistens air and traps incoming bacteria/debris
-cilia lined cells move mucus to pharynx where it's swallowed and digested by stomach juices

4

nasal cavity

-lateral walls are uneven bc of 3 conchae
-separated from oral cavity by palate

5

conchae

-increases surface area that is exposed to air
-increases air turbulence (traps particles in mucous)

6

hard palate

area supported by bone

7

soft palate

unsupported posterior part

8

sinuses location

-frontal
-sphenoid
-ethmoid
-maxillary

9

sinuses function

-lighten skull and act as resonance chambers for speech
-produce mucus which drains into the nasal cavities (and tears from the lacrimal ducts)

10

pharynx

-aka throat
-air enters nasopharynx then descends into oropharynx and laryngopharynx to the larynx below
-auditory tubes open to the nasopharynx, which causes a sore throat from ear infections
-contains the tonsils for protection

11

larynx

-aka voice box
-routes air and food into the proper channels
-composed of hyaline cartilage and an elastic cartilage flap called the epiglottis
-contains the vocal folds or cords that vibrate when air is expelled, allowing us to speak

12

what creates adams apple

thyroid cartilage

13

epiglottis function

protects the superior opening of the larynx (prevents entry of food)

14

trachea

-aka windpipe
-air travels down to 5th thoracic vertebra
-composed of c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage allowing for the esophagus to expand with protection and support of the harder portion
-lined w/ ciliated mucosa that beat continuously in the opposite direction of the incoming air
-propels mucous away from the lungs to the throat where it is swallowed or spat out

15

primary bronchi

-trachea splits into right and left primary bronchi
-right bronchus is wider, shorter, and straighter than the left(more common site for an inhaled object)
-incoming air is warm, cleansed of impurities, and well humidified

16

lungs

-occupy the entire thoracic cavity except the mediastinum
-apex is deep to each clavicle
-broad lung area resting on diaphragm is base
-each lung is divided into lobes by fissures(left has 2 lobes, right has 3)
-surface of each lung is covered w/ pulmonary pleura
-walls of thoracic cavity are lined with parietal pleura
-produce fluid to reduce friction with expanding lungs
-bronchi continue to divide into lungs, creating bronchioles, lead to alveoli

17

4 distinct events

1. pulmonary ventilation
2. external respiration
3. respiratory gas transport
4. internal respiration

18

mechanics of pulmonary ventilation

-depends on volume changes occurring in the thoracic cavity
-respiratory gases conform to the shape of its container, filling the lungs (in large volume, particles are farther apart, and vice versa)

19

pulmonary ventilation inspiration

-diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, the size of the thoracic cavity increases
-intercostals lift rib cage and moves sternum forward
-intrapulmonary volume increases, gases spread out to fill the larger space, producing vacuum
-vacuum sucks air into lungs until intrapulmonary pressure equals atmospheric pressure

20

pulmonary ventilation

-as diaphragm and intercostals relax, rib cage descends and lungs recoil
-thoracic and intrapulmonary volume decrease
-pressure increases
-natural process unless asthma or respiratory disorders are present (leads to forced expiration)

21

nonrespiratory air movements

-cough
-sneeze
-crying
-laughing
-hiccups
-yawn

22

cough

taking a deep breath, closing glottis, forcing air superiorly from lungs against glottis;glottis opens suddenly and blast of air rushes upward

23

sneeze

expelled air directed through nasal cavity as well as through oral cavity

24

crying

inspiration followed by releasing air in a number of short expirations

25

hiccups

sudden inspirations resulting from spasms of diaphragm; believed to be initiated by irritation of diaphragm or phrenic nerves

26

yawn

very deep inspiration, taken with jaws wide open; not believed to be triggered by levels of oxygen or co2 in blood

27

tidal volume

amount of air moved into and out of lungs with each breath(normal breathing)

28

inspiratory reserve volume

amount of air that can be inhaled after initial breath

29

expiratory reserve volume

amount of air that can be exhaled after normal expiration

30

spirometer

tests respiratory functioning and possible diseases

31

bronchial sounds

air rushing through passageway

32

vesicular breathing sounds

air fills alveoli

33

external respiration

-gas exchanges occur following law of diffusion
-movement of gases between alveoli and bloodstream
-always more o2 in alveoli than in blood
-tissue cells release co2 into blood to carry to alveoli

34

gas trasnport

-o2 is transported in blood either attached to hemoglobin or dissolved in plasma
-co2 is transported either as bicarbonate ions or inside rbcs
-to diffuse from blood into alveoli, must be released from bicarbonate ion form, so combines w/ hydrogen ions to form carbonic acid then splits to form water and co2

35

internal respiration

-co2 diffuses out of tissue into blood
-combines w/ water to form carbonic acid, releasing bicarbonate into blood plasma
-o2 is released from hemoglobin out of blood into tissue cells

36

control of respiration

-neural impulses
-physical factors
-conscious control
-emotional factors
-chemical factors

37

neural impulses

-caused by phrenic and intercostal nerves within the medulla and pons
-exercise increases our respiration pattern

38

hyperpnea

increased depth of breathing when required to meet metabolic demand of body tissues

39

physical factors

-increased body temp increases breathing rate
-nonrespiratory movements

40

conscious control

singing, talking, swimming
-respiratory centers will eventually ignore messages

41

emotional factors

-hypothalamus causes changes from emotional stimuli such as fear or trauma

42

chemical factors

o2 and co2 levels in blood determine breathing w/ decreased blood ph
-hyperventilation
-hypoventilation

43

hyperventilation

blood pH becomes acidic and body needs to rid co2 by blowing it out

44

hypoventilation

blood pH is too basic then breathing becomes slow and shallow (accumulate co2 in blood)

45

emphysema

alveoli enlarge, causing fibrosis of lungs and airways collapse

46

chronic bronchitis

mucosa becomes inflamed with pooled mucous, causing infections and pneumonias

47

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

-aka copd
-patients have history of smoking, dyspnea occurs and becomes progressively worse, coughing w/ frequent infections are common, and most copd victims are hypoxic and develop respiratory failure
-caused by emphysema and chronic bronchitis

48

apnea

cessation of breathing until co2 builds back up in the blood

49

cyanosis

breathing stops for a period of time due to insufficient o2 in blood

50

hypoxia

inadequate o2 delivery to body tissue (bluish skin)

51

carbon monoxide poisoning

co binds to same site as hemoglobin and out crowds o2

52

study development

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