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Flashcards in Midterm Review Deck (136):
0

What are the survival needs of the human body?

Water
Food
O2
Heat
Pressure

1

What is homeostasis and why is it important to maintain?

The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes

Important to maintain because it allows the cells to function properly

2

What is the order of the structural organization of the human body? How are these levels related?

Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

Each builds off of the next

3

What are the 11 body systems and their major functions?

Integumentary- covers the body, senses changes outside the body, and helps regulate body temp

Cardiovascular- distributes o2 and nutrients throughout the body while removing waste from cells

Muscular- movement, posture, and body heat

Skeletal- supports, protects, provides frameworks, stores inorganic salts, and houses bloodforming tissues

Nervous- integrates incoming information from receptors and sends impulses to muscles and glands

Digestive- receives, breaks down, and absorbs nutrients.

Reproductive- produces new organisms

Respiratory- exchanges gases b/w blood and air

Endocrine- helps integrate metabolic functions (hormones)

Lymphatic- drains excess tissue fluid and includes cells of immunity

Urinary- removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance

4

What are the anatomical terms to describe body planes?

Sagittal section divides body into right and left portions

Transverse section divides body into superior and inferior portions. AKA cross section

Coronal section divides body into anterior and posterior sections

5

Anterior

In front of

6

Posterior

Behind

7

Superior

Above

8

Inferior

Below

9

Medial

On the inner side of

10

Lateral

On the outer side of

11

Proximal

Closer to the origin

12

Distal

Farther from the origin

13

Superficial

At the body surface

14

What is anatomy?

Structure of the body

15

What is physiology

Function of the body

16

Abdominal

Anterior body trunk

17

Acromial

Point of shoulder

18

Antecubital

Anterior surface of elbow

19

Axillary

Armpit

20

Brachial

Arm

21

Buccal

Cheek area

22

Carpal

Wrist

23

Cervical

Neck region

24

Coxal

Hip

25

Crural

Leg

26

Digital

Fingers, toes

27

Femoral

Thigh

28

Fibular

Lateral part of the leg

29

Inguinal

Area where thigh meets body trunk

30

Nasal

Nose

31

Oral

Mouth

32

Orbital

Eye area

33

Patellar

Anterior knee

34

Pelvic

Area overlying pelvis anteriorly

35

Pubic

Genital region

36

Sternal

Breastbone area

37

Tarsal

Ankle region

38

Thoracic

Chest

39

Umbilical

Navel

40

Cephalic

Head

41

Deltoid

Curve of shoulder

42

Gluteal

Buttock

43

Lumbar

Area of back between ribs and hips

44

Occiptal

Posterior surface of head

45

Popliteal

Posterior knee area

46

Sacral

Area between hips

47

Scapular

Shoulder blade region

48

Sural

Posterior surface of lower leg;calf

49

Vertebral

Area of spine

50

What is the division of the body

Appendicular (limbs)

Axial (head, neck, and trunk)

Dorsal cavity (cranial cavity and vertebral column)

Ventral cavity(thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity)

Mediastinum divides thorax in half

Oral, nasal, orbital, middle ear

51

4 quadrants and 9 regions


Look at diagram

52

Fibroblasts

Has abundant rER and golgi apparatus

53

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells that carry o2 thru bloodstream

54

Epithelial

Hexagonal cells packed together in sheets with abundant amount of intermediate filaments

55

Muscle cell

Elongated

Filled with an abundant amount of contractile filaments

56

Fat cells

Contains large lipid drop within cytoplasm

Stores nutrients

57

Macrophage

Cell
Fights disease

58

Neuron

Cell that gathers information and controls body functions

59

Oocyte

Female sex cell

60

Sperm

Male sex cell

61

What are the four major tissue types?

Epithelial

Connective

Muscle

Nervous

62

Structures of epithelial tissue

Simple

Stratified

Squamous

Cuboidal

Columnar

63

Function of epithelial tissue

Lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body

Protects, absorbs, filtrates, secretes

64

Location of epithelial tissue

Skin, body cavities

65

Connective tissue structure

Well vascularized (Except tendons and ligaments and cartilage)

Made up of many different types of cells

Has extracellular matrix

66

Function of connective tissue

Connects body parts

Support body

Provide protection

67

Location of connective tissue

Everywhere in the body

68

Muscle tissue structure

Elongated

Long axis for contraction

Skeletal has striations

Cardiac has intercalated disc

69

Muscle tissue function

Contraction

Shortening

70

Muscle tissue location

Along bones

Heart

Organs

71

Nervous tissue structure

Made up of neurons

Cytoplasm long and drawn out

72

Nervous tissue function

Receive and conduct electrical impulses

73

Nervous tissue location

Brain

Spinal chord

Nerves

74

Cutaneous membrane structure

Keratinizing stratified squamous and dense connective tissue

75

Cutaneous membrane function

Makes up the skin, protection

76

Cutaneous membrane location

Outer portion of body

Exposed to air

Dry membrane

77

Mucous membrane structure

Various epithelial and lamina propria

78

Mucous membrane function

Secrete mucus for lubrication

Protects against infection

79

Mucous membrane location

Cavities open to exterior

Wet membrane

80

Serous membrane structure

Simple squamous on top of areolar tissue

81

Serous membrane function

Line and enclose body cavities

82

Serous membrane location

Cavities closed to exterior

83

Synovial membrane structure

Areolar tissue

84

Synovial membrane function

Line fibrous capsules surrounding joints (bursae and tendon sheath)

Provide smooth surface and lubricating fluid

85

Synovial membrane location

Surrounding joints

86

Main functions of integumentary system

Protection

Excretion

Insulation and cushioning

Manufactures protein and vitamin D

87

Epidermis

Composed of 5 layers

Top layer of skin

Keratinizes

Contains melanin

88

Dermis

Middle layer of skin

Has papillary layer and reticular layer

Nutrients, pain receptors, increase friction, grabbing

Blood vessels, sweat/oil glands, pressure receptors

Well vascularized

89

Hair

Protects head against bumps, shield eyes, help keep stuff out of respiratory system

90

Hair follicle

Produces hair

91

Sebaceous glands

Oil glands

Ducts empty into hair follicle

Produce sebum

92

Sweat gland

Aka sudoriferous glands

Two types : eccrine and apocrine

93

How is skin color determined?

Amount of melanin in the skin

Produced by melanocytes

94

First degree burn

Only epidermis is damaged

Area becomes red and swollen

Heal within 2-3 days without special attention

95

Second degree burn

Epidermis and upper dermal is damaged

Area is red, painful, and possibly forms blisters

Regeneration can occur

96

Third degree burn

Destroys entire thickness of skin

Area appears blanched(gray-white)

Nerve endings are destroyed

Regeneration not possible

97

Basal cell carcinoma

Least malignant, most common

Cells of stratum basale are altered so they can no longer form keratin

Cells invade dermis and subcutaneous

Sun exposed area of face

Shiny, dome shaped modules

Pearly edge

99% cured

98

Squamous cell carcinoma

Stratum spinosum are altered

Scaly, reddened papule

Forms shallow ulcer raised border

Grows rapidly

99

Malignant melanoma

Cancer of melanocytes

5% of skin cancers

Spreading brown/black patch that metastasizes rapidly to surrounding lymph and blood vessels

50% chance of survival

100

How is aging in the integumentary system portrayed?

Fetal development: lanugo(down type of hair)

Birth: skin covered with vernix caseosa (white substance produced by sebaceous gland)

Newborn: thin and contains milia (small white spots on face)

Growth causes skin to become thicker and moist , more fat deposited

Adolescence: skin becomes more oily

Young adult: acne

Old age: skin gets drier, fat tissue decreases, elasticity decreases

50: 1/3 of hair follicles have dropped

101

Main functions of skeletal system

Support
Protection
Movement
Storage
Blood cell formation(hematopoiesis)

102

Four main types of bone and example of each

Long(humerus)

Short(carpals)

Flat(sternum)

Irregular(vertebrae)

103

How do calcium levels affect strength and durability of bones?

The higher the calcium levels in your bones, the stronger they are

104

How do the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae differ in appearance?

Cervical: smallest, lightest, holes on the sides

Thoracic: middle size, hole in the middle

Lumbar: massive, block like

105

Scoliosis

Sideways curvature of spine

106

Kyphosis

Over curvature of thoracic region (hunchback)

107

Lordosis

Inward curvature of cervical and lumbar regions

108

Male and female pelvis differentiation

Female inlet is larger/more circular

Female Pelvis is shallower and bones are lighter

Female ilia flare more laterally

Female sacrum is shorter, less curved

Female ischial spines are shorter and farther apart; outlet is larger

Female pubic arch is greater and more rounded

109

Three major categories of joints and amount of movement allowed by each

Synarthroses: immovable

Amphyiarthroses: slightly moveable

Diarthroses: freely moveable

111

Six types of synovial joints and examples of each

Plane: tarsals

Hinge: patella

Pivot: ulna and radius

Condyloid:fingers

Saddle: thumb

112

how do forensic anthropologists determine an individual's identity based on bones?

- pelvis shape
-length of bones
-development of growth plate
-shape of eye sockets, nose
-teeth

113

how does smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscle differ

Smooth: spindle shaped & no striations, uninucleated, located in organs, involuntary movement
Skeletal: cylindrical with striations, multinucleated, attached to bones, voluntary movement
Cardiac: Branching w/ striations, found in heart, involuntary

114

What are the main functions of the muscle system?

-movement
-maintain posture
-stabilize joints
-generates heat

115

how do myosin and actin cause muscle contractions

when muscle fibers are activated by the nervous system, cross bridges attach myosin to actin to cause contraction

116

what are the series of events of muscle cell contraction

-neurons send impulses over neuromuscular junctions , which are separated by a synaptic cleft
-neurotransmitter crosses synaptic cleft and attaches to sarcolemma
-once attached, Na ions rush into cell and generate energy (action potential)

117

what is graded response

in muscle contraction, different degrees of shortening, depending on the stimuli

118

what is tetanus

the accumulation of nerve impulses to provide movement

-fused tetanus is smooth, full movement
-unfused tetanus are the steps leading to fused tetanus

119

what are isotonic contractions

movement occurs

120

isometric contractions

myofilaments are unable to slide, movement cannot occur

121

what are the 3 ways ATP is regenerated

-direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate
-Aerobic glycolysis
-Anaerobic respiration (lactic acid fermentation)

122

direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate

-creatine transfers high energy phosphate to ADP, making ATP
-1 ATP per CP
-anaerobic
-muscles store more CP than ATP
-CP exhausted in 15-20 s

123

aerobic respiration

-glucose broken down into CO2 and H20 and 36 ATP
-O2, amino acids, pyruvic acids, fatty acid required
-allows contraction for hours

124

anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation

glycolysis breaks glucose into pyruvic acid and 2 atp
-2 atp per glucose
-if o2 not present, broken into lactic acid
-yields 5% of atp of aerobic respiration
-faster process, provides atp for 30-60 s

125

what are the types of body movement

flexion
extension
rotation
abduction
adduction
circumduction
dorsiflexion
plantar flexion
inversion
eversion
opposition
supination
pronation

126

how is aging in muscle system portrayed?

muscles becoming flaccid, atrophy

127

what are the 3 eye tunics and location of each?

sclera(outermost)
choroid(middle)
retina(inner)

128

what are rods?

one of the photoreceptors, helps to see in darker places

129

what are cones?

one of the photoreceptors, helps to see details in brightly lit places

130

passageway of light as it enters eye

cornea, aqueous humor,lens, vitreous humor, retina

131

how does an individual use equilibrium organs to maintain dynamic balance and static balance?

static: inside the vestibular apparatus there are receptors called maculae (report position of head). static helps determine movement of the head in the up or down direction. otoliths and hair cells are in the otolithic membrane. otoliths send impulses to vestibular nerve then cerebellum to inform body location of head
dynamic: receptors found in semicircular canals, respond to angular movements. receptor regions called crista ampullaris are located in semicircular canals and covered by cupula. endolymph fluid moves in opposite direction of body movement, pushing cupula and stimulating hair cells to send impulses to vestibular nerve.

132

location of olfactory and taste receptors

roof of each nasal cavity
(taste) oral cavity and tongue

133

structure of olfactory and taste receptors

neurons with olfactory hairs and mucus covering them

134

function of olfactory and taste receptors

gives sense of smell and taste when chemicals are dissolved

135

what are the four basic taste sensations

sweet receptors:sugars,saccharine,some amino acids
-sour receptors: H or acidity of solution
-bitter receptors: alkaloids
-salty receptors:metal ions in solution

136

aging in special senses

-as you age, the sharpness of sense begins to fade