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Anatomy & Physiology > Tissues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tissues Deck (59):
1

Fibroblasts

-Elongated cell
-rER & Golgi apparatus
-Making proteins

2

Erythrocytes

-AKA red blood cells
-concave
-carries O2 to bloodstream

3

Epithelial Cell

-hexagonal
-packs together in sheets
-abundant intermediate filaments
-cover and line body organs

4

Skeletal & Smooth Muscle Cells

-elongated
-filled w abundant contractile filaments
-move organs and body parts

5

Fat Cell

-contains large lipid droplet w/in cytoplasm
-stores nutrients

6

Macrophage

-extends long pseudopods to crawl thru tissue to reach infection site
-fights diseases

7

Nerve Cell

-AKA neuron
-has long processes made of plasma membrane & rER
-receives messages and transmits them to other structures in body
-gathers info and controls body functions

8

Oocyte

-female sex cell
-largest cell in the body
-contains many copies of all organelles for distribution to daughter cells

9

Sperm

-male sex cell
-long, streamlined
-swims to egg for fertilization

10

Epithelial Tissue Function

-protect
-absorb
-filtrate
-secrete

11

Epithelial Tissue Characteristics

-fit closely together to form continuos sheets (cell junctions- desmonosomes & tight junctions)
-always have one free surface or edge (apical surface)
-lower surface rests on basement membrane
-have no blood supply of their own (depend on diffusion from capillaries
-can regenerate easily

12

Simple Epithelial Tissue

-function: absorption, secretion, filtration
-very thin

13

Simple Squamous

-filtration or exchange of substances by diffusion
-ex. air sacs of the lungs, walls of capillaries

14

Serous Membranes

-AKA serosa
-slick, line ventral body cavity and cover organs inside
-formed from simple squamous tissue

15

Simple Cuboidal

-common in glands and ducts
-ex. salivary glands and pancreas
-forms walls of kidney tubules and covers surface of ovaries

16

Simple Columnar

-lines entire length of digestive tract
-contains goblet cells
-muscosae

17

Muscosae

-AKA mucus membranes
-epithelium that line body cavities open to body exterior
-simple columnar

18

Pseudostratified Columnar

-gives false impression that it's stratified
-nuclei appear at different heights above basement membrane
-lines most of respiratory tract
-cilia propel mucus upward away from lungs

19

Stratified Epithelial Tissue

-consists of multiple layers
-protection

20

Stratified Squamous

-layer by basement membrane are squamous but top are columnar or cuboidal
-in areas that receive a lot of abuse/friction
-ex. esophagus, mouth, outer portion of skin

21

Stratified Cuboidal/Columnar

-rarely found
-mainly in ducts of large glands

22

Transitional Epithelial

-forms lining of bladder, ureters, and part of urethra
-stretching

23

Glandular Epithelium

-make and secrete a particular product (secretion)
-secretion usually contains proteins in an aqueous fluid

24

Endocrine Glands

-lose connection to surface (duct)
-secretions diffuse directly into blood vessels
-ex. thyroid, adrenals, pituitary

25

Exocrine Glands

-retain ducts
-secretions empty through ducts to epithelial surface
-ex. sweat, oil glands, liver, pancreas

26

Connective Tissue Function

-to connect body parts
-support the body
-provide protection

27

Connective Tissue Characteristics

-most are well vascularized (except tendons, ligaments, and cartilages)
-have extracellular matrix

28

Extracellular Matrix Form

- has ground substance made up of mostly H2O, adhesion proteins & polysaccharides
-has fibers such as collagen, elastic, or reticular

29

Extracellular Matrix Function

-to form soft packing tissue around organs
-bear weight
-withstand stretching
-absorb water

30

Bone Tissue

-connective
-most rigid
-most collagen fibers
-AKA Osseous tissue
-made of bone cells sitting in lacunae
-surrounded by layers of matrix that contain Ca salts
-protects and supports body organs
-concentric circles

31

Lacunae

-cavities in bone

32

Cartilage

-less collagen fibers than bone tissue
-most abundant is hyaline cartilage
-forms supporting structures

33

Hyaline Cartilage

-forms larynx
-attaches ribs to breastbone
-covers ends of bones where joints are

34

Fibrocartilage

-disks b/w vertebrae

35

Elastic Cartilage

-external ear

36

Dense Fibrous

-AKA dense connective
-less collagen fibers than osseous and cartilage
-made up of collagen fibers and fibroblasts
-forms tendons and ligaments
-makes up lower layers of skin

37

Tendon

-attach skeletal muscles to bones

38

Ligaments

-connect bones to joints
-contain more elastic fibers than tendons

39

Loose Connective

-less collagen fibers than osseous, cartilage, and dense fibrous
-areolar
-adipose
-reticular connective

40

Areolar

-cobwebby
-cushions and protects body organs
-holds internal organs together in their spots
-lamina propria

41

Lamina Propria

-underlies mucous membranes
-fluid matrix containing all types of fibers
-provides an h20 and NaCl reservoir
-swelling of fluids causes edema

42

Adipose

-AKA fat
-areolar tissue with more fat cells
-forms subcutaneous tissue beneath the skin
-insulates body & protects it from extreme temperatures

43

Reticular Connective

-reticular fibers w reticular cells (resemble fibroblasts)
-forms stroma

44

Stroma

-internal supporting framework
-supports free blood cells in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow

45

Blood Tissue

-least amount of collagen fibers
-made up of blood cells surrounded by blood plasma
-fibers are only apparent during clotting
-transports nutrients, waste, respiratory gases, and other substances

46

Muscle Tissue Function

-contracts and shortens to produce movement

47

Muscle Tissue Characteristics

-elongated for contraction

48

Skeletal Muscle

-long, cylindrical, multi-nucleated
-striations
-voluntary
-large body movements

49

Cardiac Muscle

-branching, uni-nucleated cells
-cells fit closely together at intercalated disks
-only in heart
-contracts so heart can pump blood
-involuntary

50

Intercalated Disks

-contain gap junctions that allow ions to pass thru, creating electrical impulses

51

Smooth Muscle

-AKA visceral muscle
-uni-nucleated, spindle shaped
-found in walls of hollow organs
-contracts to move internal organs
-peristalsis
-involuntary

52

Peristalsis

-slow, wavelike motion that keeps things moving

53

Nervous Tissue

-made up of neurons
-cytoplasm is drawn out
-receives and conducts electrical impulses(irritability and conductivity)
-create the nervous system
-brain, spinal chord, nerves

54

Regeneration

-tissue repair
-replacement of destroyed tissue by same kind of cells

55

Fibrosis

-tissue repair
-repairs using dense fibrous connective tissue (scar tissue)

56

Tissue Repair Events

1.Capillaries become permeable
2.Granulation tissue forms
3.Surface of epithelium regenerates

57

Granulation tissue

-pink tissue made up of new capillaries that grows in damaged area

58

Hyperplasia

certain body tissues or organs enlarge bc of local irritant or condition that stimulates cells
-ex. breast enlargement during pregnancy

59

Atrophy

decrease in size of body tissue or organ bc it loses normal stimulation