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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (118):
1

how many bones does the adult skeleton have?

206

2

functions of bones

-support
-protection
-movement
-storage
-blood cell formation

3

What is stored in the bones

mainly calcium and phosphorous

4

hematopoiesis

-AKA blood cell formation
-occurs w/ in marrow cavities of certain bones

5

parts of skeleton

-axial
-appendicular

6

makes up axial

-skull
-vertebral column
-bony thorax

7

makes up appendicular

-limbs
-pectoral girdle
-pelvic girdle

8

types of osseous tissue

-compact
-spongy

9

compact bone

-dense
-looks smooth and homogeneous
-contains nerves and blood vessels (supply nutrients)
-has osteocytes
-lacunae arranged in lamellae around haversian canal
-contains canaliculi
-contains volkmann's canals

10

spongy bone

-small needlelike pieces of bone
-lots of open space

11

osteocytes

-mature bone cells located inside lacunae

12

lacunae

-tiny, matrix-filled cavities that hold osteocytes

13

lamellae

concrete circles that surround a haversian canal

14

haversian canal

-central canal in the middle of compact bone

15

osteon

-each central canal and matrix ring
-AKA Haversian system

16

canaliculi

-tiny canals, connecting all bone cells to nutrient supply through hard bone matrix
-in compact bone

17

volkmann's perforating canals

-run into compact bone at right angles to the shaft

18

Types of bones

-long
-flat
-short
-irregular

19

long bones

-usually longer than wide
-composed of shaft w/ heads at both ends
-mostly compact
-example: all limbs except wrist and ankle

20

short bones

-cube-shaped
-mostly spongy bone
-example: wrist and ankle bones, sesamoid bones

21

sesamoid bones

form with tendons
- example: patella

22

flat bones

-thin, flattened, usually curved
-made up of 2 thin layers of compact bone w/ layer of spongy bone in between
-example: skull bones, ribs, sternum

23

irregular bones

-don't fit other categories
-example: vertebrae, hip bones

24

long bone structure

-diaphysis makes up most of bone's length
-covered & protected by periosteum
-epiphyses
-articular cartilage covers external surface of epiphyses
-epiphyseal line (adults)
-yellow marrow makes up cavity of diaphysis
-red marrow in diaphysis of infants

25

diaphysis

-shaft
-composed of compact bone

26

periosteum

-covers and protects long bone
-fibrous connective tissue membrane

27

epiphyses

-ends of long bone
-made of thick layers of compact bone w/ spongy inside

28

articular cartilage

-made of hyaline cartilage

29

epiphyseal line

-comes from epiphyseal plate

30

epiphyseal plate

-causes lengthwise growth of longbone
-replaced by bone by end of puberty

31

yellow marrow

-composed of adipose tissue
-in medullary cavity

32

red marrow

-in medullary cavity of infants
-in adults, in the cavities of spongy bone of flat bones and epiphyses of some long bones

33

bone markings

-show where muscles, tendons, and ligaments were attached
-shows where blood vessels and nerves passed
-projections/processes (start with t)
-depressions/cavities (start with d)

34

bone formation

-skeleton formed by cartilage & bone
-embryo is primarily hyaline cartilage
-cartilage remains only in isolated areas (bridge of nose, rib parts, joints)

35

ossification

-bone formation

36

steps of ossification

-hyaline cartilage model is completely covered with bone matrix by osteoblasts
-(cartilage bones are enclosed by bony bones)
-enclosed hyaline cartilage model is digested away, opening up medullary cavity within newly formed bone

37

osteoblasts

bone forming cells

38

bone development(length)

-by birth, most hyaline cartilage models have been converted to bone, except articular cartilages and epiphyseal plates
-new cartilage is formed continuously on external face of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate farther away from medullary cavity
-old cartilage replaced by bony matrix

39

bone development (width)

-oppositional growth
-osteoblasts add bone tissue to external face of diaphysis as osteoclasts in endosteum remove bone
-length and width occur at same rate

40

how is bone development regulated

-growth hormones
-sex hormones
-calcium levels

41

endosteum

-thin membrane that lines medullary cavity

42

osteoclasts

-bone destroying cells

43

bone remodeling

-influenced by calcium levels in the blood and pull of gravity and muscles on skeleton
-when blood calcium levels are too low, parathyroid glands release PTH hormone into the blood, which activates osteoclasts to break down bone & release calcium ions into blood
-when blood calcium levels are too high, calcium is deposited into bone matrix as hard calcium salts

44

Rickets

-occurs in children whose bones fail to calcify
- bones soften and bowing of weight-bearing bones occurs
-due to lack of calcium in diet/ lack of vitamin D

45

closed fracture

-AKA simple fracture
-doesn't penetrate skin

46

open fracture

-AKA compound fracture
-penetrates the skin

47

reduction

-treatment of fractures
-realignment of broken bone ends

48

closed reduction

-ends coaxed together by doctor's hands

49

open reduction

-surgery performed
-bones secured together w/ pins, wires

50

repair of fractures

-hematoma formed & bone cells deprived of nutrients die
-break is splinted by fibrocartilage callus & new capillaries form
-fibrocartilage replaced by bony callus made of spongy bone
-bony callus is remodeled around mechanical stresses

51

hematoma

blood-filled swelling

52

fibrocartilage callus

-contains bony matrix, cartilage matrix, and collagen fibers

53

Transverse fracture

-occurs at exactly 90 degree horizontal angle
-caused by a bending force that causes bone to snap like a carrot

54

oblique fracture

-occurs sloped at an angle/curve
-caused by trapping of one bone while other twists over it
-foot caught in rock and leg twists

55

spiral fracture

-spirals around bone
-caused by twisting force

56

-comminuted fracture

-breaks into multiple pieces
-caused by crushing force

57

avulsion fracture

-ligament or tendon pulls away from attached bone, and bone fragment breaks off
-caused by muscle contraction or stretch that is stronger than force that holds the tendon/ligament to bone

58

impacted fracture

-occurs in the middle of a bone when it is driven into itself and buckles
-caused by compression of bone from end to end

59

fissure/hairline fracture

-incomplete bone fracture
-multiple small lines often visible, don't pass thru entire bone
-caused by a less great force

60

greenstick fracture

-bone bends rather than breaks
-occurs most often in children whose bones haven't completely ossified

61

skull

-made of cranium and facial bones
-bones joined together by sutures
-only the mandible is attached to the rest of the skull by a freely moveable joint
-cranium is composed of long, flat bones

62

paranasal sinuses

-hollow portions of bones surrounding nasal cavity
-lighten the skull
-give resonance and amplification to voice

63

hyoid bone

-only bone in body that doesn't articulate directly with any other bone
-anchored by ligaments to styloid process
-moveable base for tongue
-attachment point for neck muscles that raise and lower larynx when swallowing/speaking

64

fetal skull

-very large
-considered unfinished at birth
-has fontanels that are replaced about 2 years after birth
-fontanels aka soft spots

65

vertebral column

-extends from skull to pelvis
-26 irregular bones reinforced by ligaments
-before birth, 33 vertebrae but 9 fuse together forming sacrum & coccyx
-supports/protects spinal cord
-separated by intervertebral discs

66

cervical vertebrae

-7 vertebrae of the neck
-atlas (C1) is for nodding
-axis(C2) pivot for rotation of skull
-C3-C7 are smallest lightest vertebrae

67

thoracic vertebrae

-12 vertebrae in the middle
-

68

lumbar vertebrae

-5 vertebrae of lower back

69

intervertebral discs

-made of flexible fibrocartilage

70

scoliosis

-sideways curvature of spine

71

-kyphosis

-hunchback
-over curvature of thoracic region

72

lordosis

-inward curvature of cervical and lumbar regions

73

Sacrum

-fusion of 5 vertebrae
-between L5 and coccyx
-forms posterior wall of pelvis

74

Coccyx

-tailbone
-fusion of 3-5 tiny vertebrae

75

bony thorax

-made of sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae
-aka thoracic cage

76

sternum

-breastbone
-attached to first 7 pairs of ribs

77

ribs

-12 pairs form thoracic cavity walls

78

false ribs

5 pairs attached indirectly to sternum

79

true ribs

7 pairs attached directly to sternum by costal cartilages

80

floating ribs

last 2 pairs that lack sternal attachment

81

pectoral girdle

-clavicle
-scapula

82

clavicle

-attaches to sternum and scapula
-acts as brace to hold arm away from thorax and prevent shoulder dislocation

83

scapula

-only attaches at one point
-easily dislocated
-poorly reinforced ligaments

84

pelvic girdle

-bears weight of upper body
-protects reproductive organs, urinary bladder, parts of intenstines

85

pelvic girdle male vs. female

-female inlet is larger & more circular
-female pelvis as a whole is shallower & bones are lighter and thinner
-female ilia flare more laterally
-female sacrum is shorter & less curved
-female ischial spines are shorter and farther apart; outlet is larger
-female pubic arch is greater and more rounded

86

foot arches

-3
-2 longitudinal and 1 transverse

87

joints

-aka articulations
-every bone forms one except hyoid

88

classification by function

-synarthroses
-amphyiarthroses
-diarthroses

89

classification by structure

-fibrous
-cartilaginous
-synovial

90

synarthroses

-immovable

91

amphyiarthroses

-slightly moveable

92

diarthroses

-freely moveable

93

fibrous joints

-immovable
-sutures of skull
-syndesmoses

94

syndesmoses

-connecting fibers are longer than sutures, providing more give to the joint
-distal ends of tibia and fibula

95

cartilaginous joints

-can be slightly moveable (pubic symphysis or intervertebral joints)
-can be immoveable (cartilage b/w first rib and sternum)

96

synovial joints

-bone ends separated by joint cavity containing synovial fluid
-articular cartilage covers ends of bones
-fibrous articular capsule encloses joint and is lined w/ a smooth synovial membrane
-joint cavity contains lubricating synovial fluid
-reinforcing ligaments
-bursae and tendon sheaths found close by

97

bursae

-flattened fibrous sacs lined w/ synovial membrane and contains thin film of synovial fluid

98

tendon sheath

-elongated bursae that wraps completely around tendon

99

types of synovial joints

-plane
-hinge
-pivot
-condyloid
-saddle
-ball and socket

100

plane joint

-short slipping or gliding movements
-nonaxial
-example: carpals

101

hinge joint

-angular movement in one plane
-uniaxial
-example: humerus and ulna

102

pivot joint

-rotating bone can turn only round its axis
-uniaxial
-example: head moving back and forth

103

condyloid joint

-oval areas fit together to move bone side to side/ back and forth
-can't rotate around axis
-biaxial
-example: metacarpals

104

saddle joint

-convex and concave areas like a saddle
-biaxial
-example: thumb

105

ball and socket joint

-spherical head of one bone fits into round socket of another
-multiaxial
-example: shoulder

106

osteoarthritis

-material from cartilage is worn down causing friction in joints
-caused by being overweight, being active
-symptoms: achy pain, soreness in joints
-treatments: medications, occupational therapy, physical therapy

107

osteoporosis

-causes bones to become weak and brittle
-losing bone structure
-caused by drinking alcohol, smoking
-symptoms: back pain, height loss, greater chance of fractures, lose posture
-treatments: care and keep up with your body

108

Osteogenicsarcoma

-tumor forms in growth plate
-young or old people
-symptoms: pain, swelling, fractures
-treatments: surgery, chemotherapy

109

spina bifida

-unknown cause, but believed to be environmental and genetic factors
-incomplete development of spinal cord
-symptoms: bladder, bowel problems, fluid buildup in brain, seizures
-treatments: surgery, therapy

110

craniosynostosis

-premature fusion of sutures
-caused by genetics or other disorders
-symptoms: deformed skull, pressure in skull
-treatments: surgery (traditional or endoscopic)

111

gout

-uric acid builds up in joints
-caused by severe arthritis and high red meat diet
-symptoms: limited movement, itching, red/purple skin, fatigue, fever
-treatments: medicine (anti-inflammatory), blocking uric acid production, improve removal of uric acid

112

osteogenesis imperfecta

-caused by genetics
-severe lack of collagen fibers
-extremely fragile bones
-symptoms: fractures, short stature, tinted whites of eyes, flat feet, brittled teeth, scoliosis, kyphosis
-treatments: experimental drugs, low impact sports, rods in bones, surgery

113

acrania

-caused by amniotic syndrome
-failure of ectodermal mesenchyme
-flat bones in skull are absent
-symptoms: absence of top of skull, autism
-treatments: prenatal folic acid treatments

114

herniated disc

-caused by old age
-degenerated cartilage bulges out of vertebrae
-symptoms: leg pain, arm pain
-treatments: pain relievers, anti-inflammatory

115

ankylosing spondylitis

-caused possibly by genetics
-long term arthritis
-symptoms: pain in side of lower back, fever, lost appetite, pain anywhere in back, lack of mobility, bowel inflammation, pain in peripheral joints
-treatments: medication, physical therapy, exercises, alternative meds, NSAIDs, DMARDs

116

osteochondrosis

-cause is unknown, common in trauma victims
-poor blood supply to bone
-symptoms: locked and popping joints, pain
-treatments: physical therapy, surgery

117

carpal syndrome

-causes are hereditary, genetic, compression of nerve, moving hands in same position continuously
-symptoms: numbness, tingling, weak grip
-treatments: taking breaks from typing, icing, splinting

118

bone grafting

-purpose: to replace dead bone marrow w/ new marrow or actual bone
-side effects: pain in surgical area, nerve injuries, rejection, inflammation, infection, bleeding, trouble breathing