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Anatomy & Physiology > Integumentary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary System Deck (90):
1

Two major groups of body membranes

-epithelial membranes
-connective tissue membranes

2

Body membranes function

cover surfaces, line body cavities, form protective sheets around organs

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Epithelial membranes

- not just made of epithelial tissue
-cutaneous, mucous, and serous membranes

4

Connective tissue membranes

-made just of connective tissue
-synovial membrane

5

Cutaneous membrane

-aka skin
-composed of keratinized stratified squamous & dense connective tissue
-dry membrane, exposed to air

6

Mucous membrane

-cavities open to exterior
-composed of various epithelial tissue and lamina propria
-exposed to secretions, making it a wet membrane

7

Serous membrane

-cavities closed to exterior
-composed of simple squamous on top of areolar tissue
-occurs in pairs: parietal layer(lines specific wall of cavity) and visceral layer(covers outside of organs in cavity)
-layers separated by serous fluid

8

Different names for serous membrane

-peritoneum: abdominal cavity & organs
-pleura: lungs
-pericardium: heart

9

Synovial Membranes

-composed of areolar tissue
-line fibrous capsules surrounding JOINTS
-line small sacs of connective tissue called BURSAE and TENDON SHEATH
-function: to cushion organs during movement

10

Functions of integumentary system

-protection
-excretion of wastes
-insulation and cushioning
-manufactures proteins and vitamin d

11

Epidermis

-made of 5 layers
-contains melanin

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5 layers of epidermis

-stratum basale
-stratum spinosum
-stratum granulosum
-stratum lucidum
-stratum corneum

13

Stratum basale

-deepest layer of epidermis
-constantly undergoing cell division pushing daughter cells into spinosum and granulosum

14

stratum lucidum

-keratinized
-occurs where skin is hairless and extra thick
-ex: palms and soles

15

stratum corneum

-extra keratin for protection

16

Melanin

-pigment that determines skin color
-produced my melanocytes
-stratum basale
-acts as umbrella over nuclei for protection
-yellow, reddish brown, black

17

Carotene

-orange-yellow
-found in vegetables

18

Hemoglobin

-color of red blood cells found in dermal blood vessels

19

Herpes Simplex

-AKA cold sores
-overexposure to sunlight causes damage to skin

20

Erythema

-AKA redness
-reddened skin indicates embarrassment(blushing)
-fever
-hypertension
-inflammation
-allergy

21

Pallor

-AKA blanching
-triggered by emotional stress
-paleness due to anemia
-hypotension
-impaired blood flow

22

Jaundice

-AKA yellow cast
-signifies liver condition due to excess bile pigments in blood

23

Bruises

-when blood escapes circulation and is clotted in tissue spaces
-hematoma

24

Dermis

-varies in thickness by location
- two regions: papillary & reticular

25

Papillary layer structure

-upper dermal region
-uneven w fingerlike projections called dermal papillae

26

Papillary layer function

-furnish epidermis w nutrients
-contain pain receptors
-increase friction and grabbing

27

Reticular layer structure

-deepest dermal layer
-contains blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, deep pressure receptors
-made of collagen and elastic fibers
-well vascularized

28

Reticular layer function

-toughness
-keep skin hydrated
-cause elasticity
-regulate body temp

29

Decubitus ulcers

-in bedridden patients who aren't turned regularly
-pressure from body reduces blood supply and skin becomes pale
-cells begin to die, causing cracks

30

Appendages of skin

-cutaneous glands
-hairs
-hair follicles
-nails

31

Cutaneous Glands

-all exocrine glands
-sebaceous
-sudoriferous

32

Sebaceous glands

-AKA oil glands
-all over skin except palms and soles
-ducts empty into hair follicles
-produce sebum

33

Sebum

-keeps skin moist
-infection and blockage can cause acne

34

Sudoriferous glands

-aka sweat glands
-produce sweat
-2 types: eccrine and apocrine

35

Eccrine glands

-produce sweat thru pores

36

Apocrine glands

-produce fatty acids and protein secretions along with sweat

37

Hair function

-protect head
-shield eyes
-help keep foreign particles out of respiratory system
-insulation

38

Hair structure

-hair follicle
-hair shaft
-root
-formed by dicision of stratum basale in hair bulb matrix
-as daughter cells are pushed away, become keratinized and die
-core=medula
-middle layer=cortex
-outer layer = cuticle

39

Hair follicle

-inner epidermal sheath & outer dermal sheath

40

Arrector pilli

-muscle that causes goose bumps
-connected to dermal tissue on hair follicle

41

Nails

-free edge, body, root
-nonliving

42

Nail folds

border of nail overlapped by skin

43

nail cuticle

thick proximal nail fold

44

Nail bed

stratum basale extends beneath nail

45

Nail matrix

responsible for nail growth

46

Burns

-tissue damage and cell death
-caused by intense heat, electricity, UV radiations, certain chemicals
-burned skin is sterile for 24 hours

47

Resulting problems w burns

-lose supply of fluids containing proteins and electrolytes
-dehydration/electrolyte imbalance
-shutdown of kidneys
-circulatory shock
-pathogens invade easily and multiply rapidly
-immune system depresses w/in 1-2 days after injury

48

Rule of nines

-burns
-divides body in 11 areas
-each area accounts for 9% of body surface area
-genitals are 1%

49

First degree burns

-only epidermis is damaged
-area becomes red & swollen
-heal w/in 2-3 days
-partial thickness burn

50

2nd degree burns

-epidermis and upper dermis are damaged
-are is red, painful, and possibly forms blisters
-regeneration can occur, no infection
-partial thickness burn

51

3rd degree burn

-destroys entire thickness of skin
-area appears blanched
-nerve endings are destroyed
-regeneration is not possible
-skin grafting
-full thickness burn

52

Burns are considered critical if...

-25%+ of body has 2nd degree
-10%+ of body has 3rd degree
-3rd degree on face, hands, or feet
-face burns can burn respiratory passageway, causing swelling and possible suffocation
-joint injuries can limit mobility

53

skin cancer

-most common type of cancer in humans
-cause is unknown
-risk factor=overexposure to UV rays
-other factors=infections, chemicals, physical trauma, etc

54

basal cell carcinoma

-least malignant, most common
-cells of stratum basale are altered so they can't make keratin
-cells proliferate and invade dermis and hypodermis
-appear as shiny, dome shaped
-develop ulcer w pearly edge
-99% fully cured cases

55

squamous cell carcinoma

-stratum spinosum cells altered
-lesion appears scaly, reddened papule
-forms shallow ulcer w raised border
-often on scalp, ears, dorsum of hands, lower lip
-grows rapidly, metastisizes to adjacent lymph node

56

Malignant melanoma

-cancer of melanocytes
-5% of skin cancers
-spreading brown/black patch
-metastasizes rapidly to surrounding lymph nodes and blood vessels
-50% chance survival
-surgery & immunotherapy

57

ABCD Rule

-Asymmetry
-Border irregularity
-Color
-Diameter

58

Fetal Skin

-lanugo:down type of hair(shed by birth)

59

Right at birth skin

-Vernix caseosa: white, cheesy substance made by sebaceous glands for protection of baby's skin while in mother's fluids

60

Newborn skin

-thin
-can contain milia: small white spots on nose and forehead from accumulation of sebum

61

Baby skin

-becomes thicker and moist
-more subcutaneous fat is deposited

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Adolescent skin

-skin and hair become more oily

63

Young adult skin

-acne is optimal

64

Old people skin

-skin dries out
-subcutaneous tissue decreases
-elasticity decreases

65

50+ hair

-hair follicles have decreased by 1/3
-hair thinning/baldness = alopecia

66

Athlete's foot description

-AKA tinea pedis
-scaly rash that usually causes itching, stinging, and burning
-contagious

67

Athlete's foot location

any part of epidermis

68

Athlete's foot cause

-tinea fungus
-wearing sweaty, tight shoes

69

Boils and Carbuncles Description

-inflammation of follicle
-painful, pus-filled bumps that grow until they rupture
-carbuncles are clusters of boils

70

boils and carbuncles location

dermis, sebaceous glands, hair follicle

71

boils and carbuncles cause

-staphylococcus aureus
-bacteria infects/inflames hair follicles

72

-itis

inflammation

73

Cold sores description

-groups of small lesions on skin and around mouth

74

cold sores location

dermis around cutaneous nerve

75

cold sores cause

-herpes simplex virus thru break in skin or inside mouth

76

contact dermatitis description

-red, itchy rash
-not contagious

77

contact dermatitis location

-epidermis

78

contact dermatitis cause

-soaps, cosmetics, fragrance, jewelry, plants, any allergic reaction

79

impetigo description

-highly contagious skin infection
-commonly found in infants and children
-red sores on face that burst

80

impetigo location

-epidermis and dermis

81

impetigo cause

-staphylococcus aureus
-streptococcus pyogens
-likely to develop if child's skin has already been irritated

82

psoriasis description

-causes cells to build up rapidly
-extra skin cells form thick silvery scales and itchy dry red patches that can be painful

83

psoriasis location

epidermis

84

psoriasis cause

-infections
-injury to skin
-stress
-cold weather
-smoking
-heavy alcohol consumption
-certain meds

85

eczema description

-aka atopic dermatitis
-makes skin red and itchy
-common in children
-oozing lesions

86

eczema location

-epidermis
-stratum corneum

87

eczema cause

-unknown
-possibly linked to allergic disease

88

MRSA description

-inflammation of fat
-sores, boils, other infections of skin
-can infect surgical wounds, bloodstream, lungs, urinary tract

89

MRSA location

-epidermis, dermis, hypodermis

90

MRSA cause

-methicilin resistant staphylococcus aureus
-strain of staph bacteria that's resistant to antibiotics
-mostly occur in health care setting