Cardiovascular System (Chapter 10) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular System (Chapter 10) Deck (90):
1

chest pain usually caused by an insufficient supply of blood to the heart

angina pectoris

2

abnormal contractions of a blood vessel wall

angiospasm

3

narrowing of a blood vessel

angiostenosis

4

any loss of rhythm in the heartbeat

arrhythmia

5

abnormally slow heart rate, usually under 60 beats per minute

bradycardia

6

sensation of pain in the heart

cardiodynia

7

condition that originates in the heart

cardiogenic

8

abnormal hypertrophy of the heart

cardiomegaly

9

blue coloration of the skin & mucous membranes; caused by oxygen deficiency

cyanosis

10

disturbance or abnormality of the heart's normal rhythmic cycle

dysrhythmia

11

experience of pounding, racing, or skipping of the heartbeat

palpitation

12

fast heartbeat

tachycardia

13

bulging of an arterial wall caused by a congenital defect or an acquired weakness of the arterial wall produced as blood is pushed against it

aneurysm

14

inflammation of the heart & blood vessels

angiocarditis

15

tumor that arises from a blood vessel

angioma

16

rupture of an artery

arteriorrhexis

17

hardening of the arteries; the artery walls lose their elasticity & become brittle

arteriosclerosis

18

narrowing of an artery due to the deposition of a fatty plaque along the internal wall

atherosclerosis

19

ASD: congenital condition characterized by an opening in the septum that separates the right & left atria, allowing blood to pass between the atria

atrial septal defect

20

defect, usually congenital, that alters the structure of both an atrium & a ventricle

atrioventricular defect

21

cessation of heart activity

cardiac arrest

22

acute compression of the heart due to the accumulation of fluid w/in the pericardial cavity

cardiac tamponade

23

general disease of the heart muscle

cardiomyopathy

24

inflammation of the heart valves

cardiovalvulitis

25

limp when walking, caused by poor circulation

claudication

26

congenital disease in which the aorta is narrowed; causes reduced systemic circulation & fluid accumulation in the lungs

coarctation of the aorta

27

CHF: chronic condition characterized by the inability of the left ventricle to pump enough blood through the body to adequately supply systemic tissues AKA left ventricular failure

congestive heart failure

28

chronic enlargement of the right ventricle that results from congestion w/in the pulmonary circulation AKA right ventricular failure

cor pulmonale

29

CAD: generalized condition of the arteries of the heart, characterized by a reduction of blood flow to the heart wall, most common is atherosclerosis

coronary artery disease

30

blockage of an artery that supplies the heart; often due to atherosclerosis

coronary occlusion

31

DVT: abnormal presence of stationary blood clots w/in the deep veins of the leg

deep vein thrombosis

32

blood clot or foreign particle that moves through the circulation, which can produce a severe circulatory restriction when it becomes lodged in an artery

embolism

33

inflammation of the endocardium; common cause is bacterial infection

endocarditis

34

uncoordinated, rapid contractions of the ventricles or atria

fibrillation

35

HA: acute episode during which the myocardium is deprived of blood flow leading to tissue death AKA myocardial infarction (MI)

heart attack

36

interference w/ the normal electrical conduction of the heart; often the result of a sudden reduction of blood flow that affects the SA or AV node

heart block

37

extremely rapid, but regular, contractions of the heart; either atrial or ventricular

heart flutter

38

abnormal soft, blowing, or rasping sound heard through auscultation of the heart

heart murmur

39

varicose vein in the anal region; produces symptoms of local pain & itching

hemorrhoids

40

persistently high blood pressure; includes essential hypertension where the condition is not traceable to a single cause, & secondary hypertension where the high blood pressure is caused by the effects of another disease

hypertension

41

chronic condition of low blood pressure

hypotension

42

abnormally low flow of blood to tissues; often the result of atherosclerotic plaque formation or blood clots

ischemia

43

MI: acute episode during which the myocardium is deprived of blood flow leading to tissue death (infarction). Usually the result of atherosclerosis of a coronary artery which causes narrowing & eventual clot formation

myocardial infarction

44

inflammation of the myocardium, or muscle layer of the heart wall

myocarditis

45

congenital condition characterized by an opening between the pulmonary artery & the aorta, allowing blood to pass across; in this condition, the connecting channel that is a normal part of fetal circulation before birth fails to close & thereby remains open, or patent

patent ductus arteriosus

46

inflammation of the pericardium; usually affects both layers (pericardial sac & epicardium)

pericarditis

47

inflammation of a vein

phlebitis

48

inflammation of an artery at numerous sites

polyarteritis

49

four congenital defects associated w/ the heart combined - pulmonary valve stenosis, ventricular septal defect, incorrect position of the aorta, & right ventricular hypertrophy - as a result, the pulmonary circuit is bypassed

tetralogy of Fallot

50

vascular inflammatory disease that usually affects the lower extremities AKA Buerger's disease

thromboangiitis obliterans

51

presence of stationary blood clot w/in a blood vessel

thrombosis

52

condition of an abnormally dilated vein

varicosis

53

opening in the septum that separates the right ventricle from the left ventricle, allowing blood to pass between them

ventricular septal defect

54

surgical excision of an aneurysm (bulging of arterial wall)

aneurysmectomy

55

recording obtained from an angiography procedure - x-ray of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium

angiogram

56

general surgical repair of a blood vessel; includes procedures to reopen blocked vessels

angioplasty

57

suturing a blood vessel to close an incision

angiorrhaphy

58

use of a flexible fiberoptic instrument, or endoscope, to observe a diseased blood vessel in order to assess the lesion & decide upon a mode of treatment; procedure also includes use of a camera, video recorder, & monitor

angioscopy

59

recording of an x-ray of the aorta

aortogram

60

recording of an x-ray of a particular artery

arteriogram

61

incision into an artery

arteriotomy

62

surgical removal of a fatty plaque w/in a blood vessel using a specialized rotary knife & a catheter

atherectomy

63

physical examination that consists of listening to internal sounds using a stethoscope; sounds that suggest abnormalities are often caused by dysrhythmias

auscultation

64

procedure which involves inserting a flexible catheter into a brachial or femoral artery & threading it into the heart; it is used to obtain blood samples, pressures & determine the presence & degree of coronary artery disease; it is the most reliable test for diagnosing coronary artery disease; it involves injecting a contrast medium into the heart

cardiac catheterization

65

battery-powered device that is implanted under the skin & wired to the heart chamber walls; produces timed electric pulses that replace the pacemaking function of the SA node

cardiac pacemaker

66

physician who specializes in the treatment of patients w/ heart disease

cardiologist

67

field of medicine that focuses on the treatment of patients w/ heart disease; also a department w/in a hospital where heart disease patients receive care

cardiology

68

CPR: emergency response procedure that includes artificial ventilation & external heart massage in an effort to resuscitate, or revive, the patient

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

69

recording of an x-ray of the heart's circulation

coronary angiogram

70

CABG: surgical procedure which usually involves harvesting a vessel from another part of the body, attaching one end to the aorta & the other end below the blockage

coronary artery bypass graft

71

metallic scaffold that is implanted in a coronary artery to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy

coronary stent

72

electrical charge to the heart in an effort to defibrillate (stop fibrillation) the heart; delivered by paddles onto the skin of the chest, or to the heart muscle directly if the chest has been opened

defibrillation

73

ultrasound procedure that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel

Doppler sonography

74

ultrasound procedure where sound waves are directed through the heart to evaluate heart anomalies; if performed during exercise to identify heart conditions, the procedure is called a stress echo

echocardiography

75

procedure where the electrical events associated w/ the beating of the heart are evaluated & are represented by deflections of a pen on a graph called an electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG); when the electrical activity is measured during physical activity using a treadmill or ergometer, the procedure is called a stress electrocardiogram

electrocardiography

76

surgical removal of a floating blood clot, or embolus

embolectomy

77

surgical removal of a fatty plaque or a blood clot from the interior of an artery

endarterectomy

78

surgical removal of hemorrhoids

hemorrhoidectomy

79

portable electrocardiograph worn by the patient; records electrical activity of the heart over twenty-four-hour periods, proving useful in detecting periodic or transient abnormalities

Holter ambulatory monitor

80

MRA: magnetic resonance imaging of the heart & coronary blood vessels

magnetic resonance angiography

81

test where blood flow (perfusion) to cardiac cells is monitored following injection of an isotope; test may be performed while the patient is under stress or at rest

myocardial radionuclide perfusion scan

82

visualization of the heart following administration of radioactive isotopes to aid in diagnosis

nuclear medicine imaging of the heart

83

surgical creation of an opening in the pericardial sac, usually to relieve pressure that results from pericarditis or cardiac tamponade

pericardiostomy

84

excision or puncture of a vein

phlebectomy

85

incision or puncture into a vein, usually to remove blood for sampling or to donate blood; a technician who performs the procedure is a phlebotomist

phlebotomy

86

PET: procedure that provides blood flow images using PET-scan techniques w/ radioactive isotope labeling

positron emission tomography scan

87

procedure that measures arterial blood pressure using a device called a sphygmomanometer, which consists of an arm cuff & air pressure pump w/ a pressure gauge

shygmomanometry

88

treatments that dissolve blood clots (thrombi) using drugs such as streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator (TPA); this treatment is often applied w/in six hours of an MI & has been credited w/ saving many lives

thrombolytic therapy

89

surgical repair of a heart valve; if repair is not possible, a valve replacement may be required using an artificial valve or pig valve

valvuloplasty

90

recording of an x-ray of a vein

venogram