Endocrine System (Chapter 9) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine System (Chapter 9) Deck (59):
1

abnormal accumulation of waste materials that are acidic, often a symptom of diabetes mellitus; acidosis also may be caused by respiratory or kidney disorders

acidosis

2

abnormal protrusion of the eyes

exophthalmos

3

abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by a tumor, lack of iodine in diet, or infection

goiter

4

abnormal increase in hormone production; often the result of an inherited disease or a tumor

hypersecretion

5

abnormal decrease in hormone production, which often occurs when an endocrine gland suffers trauma due to injury or infection; also may be caused by an inherited disorder or tumor

hyposecretion

6

excessive amount of ketone bodies in the blood & urine, which is a symptom of abnormal metabolism of fats seen in uncontrolled diabetes & starvation AKA ketoacidosis

ketosis

7

excessive thirst

polydipsia

8

excretion of abnormally large volumes of urine

polyuria

9

enlargement of bone structure most prominent in the face & hands; results in disfigurement & is caused by the hypersecretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland after puberty

acromegaly

10

chronic syndrome caused by hyposecretion of the adrenal corext; characterized by darkening of the skin, loss of appetite, mental depression, & muscle weakness

Addison's disease

11

inflammation of a gland

adenitis

12

abnormal condition of a gland

adenosis

13

excessive production of androgen (male sex hormone) by the adrenal cortex; usually caused by adrenal hyperplasia or a tumor in adult women; symptoms include masculinization

adrenal virilism

14

inflammation of the adrenal gland

adrenalitis

15

abnormal development of the adrenal cortex; results in its excessive size & hypersecretion of its hormones

adrenocorticohyperplasia

16

abnormal enlargement of the adrenal glands

adrenomegaly

17

general disease of the adrenal gland

adrenopathy

18

deficiency of calcium AKA hypocalcemia

calcipenia

19

congenital hypothyroidism in children; results in reduced mental development & dwarfed physical stature

cretinism

20

syndrome that results from hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex; characterized by obesity, moon face, hyperglycemia, & muscle weakness

Cushing's syndrome

21

DI: caused by hyposecretion of ADH by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland w/ symptoms that include polydipsia & polyuria

diabetes insipidus

22

DM: chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism; includes type 1, which requires hormone replacement therapy w/ insulin, & type 2, which can usually be managed w/ diet & exercise programs

diabetes mellitus

23

general disease of the endocrine system

endocrinopathy

24

presence of excessive body hair; in women, it is caused by the hypersecretion of androgens by the adrenal cortex

hirsutism

25

abnormally high calcium levels in the blood

hypercalcemia

26

abnormally high glucose levels in the blood

hyperglycemia

27

excessive amounts of insulin in the blood; results in low levels of sugar in the blood, fainting, & convulsions

hyperinsulinism

28

abnormally high potassium levels in the blood

hyperkalemia

29

hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually due to a tumor

hyperparathyroidism

30

hypersecretion of the thyroid gland, which is characterized by exophthalmos, goiter, rapid heart rate, & weight loss AKA Graves' disease or thyrotoxicosis

hyperthyroidism

31

abnormally low calcium levels in the blood

hypocalcemia

32

abnormally low blood sugar levels

hypoglycemia

33

abnormally low potassium levels in the blood

hypokalemia

34

abnormally low sodium levels in the blood

hyponatremia

35

hyposecretion of the parathyroid gland

hypoparathyroidism

36

hyposecretion of the thyroid gland; characterized by slow heart rate, dry skin, low energy, & weight gain

hypothyroidism

37

advanced hypothyroidism in adults w/ the characteristics of low energy, swollen hands & face, & dry skin

myxedema

38

inflammation of the pancreas

pancreatitis

39

tumor of the parathyroid gland

parathyroidoma

40

caused by hyposecretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland at an early age, it slows growth & causes a short but proportional stature; congenital condition that can be treated during childhood w/ growth hormone therapy

pituitary dwarfism

41

caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone that begins before puberty; leads to abnormally increased growth of bones to produce a very large stature

pituitary gigantism

42

disorder w/ an array of symptoms & involves multiple organs

syndrome

43

caused by a deficiency of parathyroid hormone; the low calcium levels in the blood lead to excitation of nerves & muscle spasms

tetany

44

condition that results from excessive thyroid hormone levels

thyrotoxicosis

45

surgical excision of the adrenal gland

adrenalectomy

46

physician who specializes in the treatment of endocrine disorders

endocrinologist

47

field of medicine that focuses on the study & treatment of endocrine disorders

endocrinology

48

FBS: diagnostic test to determine blood sugar levels following a 12-hr fast; extreme variation in blood sugar is an indication of diabetes mellitus

fasting blood sugar

49

GTT: diagnostic test to confirm diagnosis of DM & to determine other abnormalities in glucose metabolism; usually follows an FBS - pt is given glucose then at timed intervals, blood samples are taken & glucose levels determined & charted

glucose tolerance test

50

HRT: use of a drug that replaces a hormone to correct a hormone deficiency

hormone replacement therapy

51

surgical excision of one or more parathyroid glands

parathyroidectomy

52

PPBS: measurement of blood sugar levels over two hrs after a meal

postprandial blood sugar

53

RAIU: diagnostic procedure that measures thyroid function, in which radioactive iodine uptake into the thyroid gland is measured

radioactive iodine uptake

54

use of radioactive iodine to treat a disease of the thyroid gland, such as a thyroid tumor

radioiodine therapy

55

diagnostic procedure that records an image of the thyroid gland following the oral administration of a labeled substance, usually iodine; used to detect thyroid tumors

thyroid scan

56

surgical excision of the thyroid gland

thyroidectomy

57

incision into the thyroid gland

thyroidotomy

58

surgical excision of the thyroid & parathyroid glands

thyroparathyroidectomy

59

direct measurement of the amount of thyroxine in the blood to determine hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism

thyroxine test