Respiratory System (Chapter 12) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory System (Chapter 12) Deck (111):
1

absence of carbon dioxide

acapnia

2

absence of oxygen

anoxia

3

absence of voice

aphonia

4

periods or episodes during respiratory cycle when someone stops breathing for a period of time

apnea

5

slow breathing

bradypnea

6

narrowing of airway caused by contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of the bronchioles

bronchospasm

7

pattern of breathing marked by gradual increase of deep breathing, followed by shallow breathing, that leads to apnea

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

8

hoarseness of the voice

dysphonia

9

difficulty breathing

dyspnea

10

nosebleed

epistaxis

11

normal breathing

eupnea

12

coughing up & spitting out blood that originates from the lungs

hemoptysis

13

blood in the pleural cavity

hemothorax

14

excessive carbon dioxide in the blood

hypercapnia

15

deep breathing

hyperpnea

16

excessive movement of air in & out of the lungs

hyperventilation

17

deficient levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, which can result in apnea

hypocapnia

18

shallow breathing

hypopnea

19

breathing rhythm that fails to meet the body's gas exchange demands

hypoventilation

20

deficient levels of oxygen in the blood

hyoxemia

21

deficient levels of oxygen in tissues throughout the body

hypoxia

22

spasmodic closure of the glottis (opening into the larynx)

laryngospasm

23

ability to breathe is limited to an upright position

orthopnea

24

sudden sharp pain or convulsion; violent attack due to the sudden occurrence of symptoms or an acute exacerbation (abrupt worsening) of pre-existing symptoms

paroxysm

25

rapid flow of blood from the nose

rhinorrhagia/epistaxis

26

fluid discharge from the nose

rhinorrhea

27

expectorated matter; usually contains mucus & sometimes pus

sputum

28

rapid breathing

tachypnea

29

pain in the chest region

thoracalgia

30

absence of respiratory ventilation; suffocation

asphyxia

31

condition of the lungs characterized by widespread narrowing of the bronchioles & formation of mucus plugs producing symptoms of wheezing, SOB, & coughing; caused by the local release of factors during an allergic response

asthma

32

absence of gas in the lungs due to a failure of alveolar expansion

atelectasis/collapsed lung

33

one of the COPDs involving permanent dilation of 1 or more bronchi; patient suffers w/ chronic respiratory infections & often produces copious amounts of purulent sputum

bronchiectasis

34

inflammation of the bronchi; acute form is often due to viral or bacterial infection, while the chronic form is often due to air pollution or smoking & is part of COPD

bronchitis

35

cancer that originates in the bronchi

bronchogenic carcinoma

36

acute inflammation of the smaller bronchial tubes, bronchioles, & alveoli

bronchopneumonia

37

group of disorders (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, & bronchiectasis) associated w/ the obstruction of bronchial airflow; usually a result of inhaling tobacco products for many years

chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD)

38

fungal infection of the upper respiratory tract & lungs that often spreads to other organs caused by inhaling dust that contains spores of Coccidioides immunitis

coccidioidomycosis/valley fever

39

disease of the right side of the heart that is caused by a chronic lung disease, such as emphysema

cor pulmonale

40

common viral head cold

coryza

41

respiratory condition of infants & young children; usually triggered by a viral upper respiratory infection; causes swelling of the larynx & produces a characteristic barking cough

croup

42

hereditary disease characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract & elsewhere

cystic fibrosis (CF)

43

nasal septum that divides the two nasal cavities is not median, creating one cavity that is larger than the other

deviated septum

44

protrusion of the stomach &/or intestine through the diaphragm; can interfere w/ breathing

diaphragmatocele/diaphragmatic hernia

45

chronic lung disease characterized by distended alveoli & damaged respiratory membrane; symptoms include dyspnea, a barrel chest due to labored breathing, & gradual deterioration due to chronic progressive hypoxemia

emphysema

46

inflammation of the epiglottis; often results from bacterial infection & may lead to airway obstruction, esp among children

epiglottitis

47

inability to sleep

insomnia

48

inflammation of the larynx

laryngitis

49

chronic inflammation of the larynx, trachea, & bronchi; acute form that strikes infants & children is called croup

laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)

50

form of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila

legionellosis/Legionnaire's disease

51

inflammation of the nose & pharynx

nasopharyngitis

52

collapse of the pharynx during sleep; results in airway obstruction & the absence of breathing

obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

53

inflammation of all paranasal sinuses on one or both sides of the face

pansinusitis

54

acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the larynx, trachea, & bronchi; produces spasmodic coughing; also called whooping cough due to the noise produced during coughing when the larynx spasms

pertussis

55

inflammation of the pharynx

pharyngitis

56

escape of fluid into the pleural cavity during inflammation; results in compression of the underlying part of the affected lung

pleural effusion

57

inflammation of the pleurae

pleuritis/pleurisy

58

hernia of the lung, in which the lung protrudes through an opening in the chest

pneumatocele/pneumocele

59

inflammation of the lungs caused by the chronic inhalation of fine particles; leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the alveoli that reduces their ability to stretch w/ incoming air; includes asbestos & silicosis

pneumoconiosis

60

pneumonia caused by the fungus P. carinii; common opportunistic disease in patients w/ AIDS

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)

61

inflammation of the lung tissue in which the alveoli accumulate fluid & sometimes pus; causes include pathogens which may be bacterial, viral or fungal; causes can also be noninfectious such as smoke inhalation

pneumonia

62

inflammation of the lungs, independent of a particular cause

pneumonitis

63

presence of air or gas in the pleural space causing the lung to collapse; a small area of the lung can be affected or the entire lung; causes include fractured rib, puncture wounds to the chest & a ruptured bleb (air sac)

pneumothorax

64

accumulation of fluid in the alveoli & bronchioles

pulmonary edema

65

blockage in the pulmonary circulation caused by a moving blood clot

pulmonary embolism (PE)

66

tumor of the lung

pulmonary neoplasm

67

infection of the lungs by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which includes tubercle formation, inflammation, & necrotic lesions

pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)

68

condition of pus in the pleural cavity

pyothorax/emphysema

69

respiratory failure characterized by atelectasis; condition occurs in 2 forms:
1) neonatal/infant respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS/IRDS) - appears in infants & is caused by insufficient surfactant (substance secreted by alveolar cells to enable reopening after expiration)
2) adult/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) - affects adults & is caused by severe lung infection or injuryf

respiratory distress syndrome

70

inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane

rhinitis

71

fungal infection of the nasal mucous membrane

rhinomycosis

72

severe, rapid onset viral infection resulting in respiratory distress that includes lung inflammation, alveolar damage, & atelectasis

severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

73

inflammation of the sinus mucous membranes

sinusitis

74

inflammation of a tonsil, usually a palatine tonsil; an adenoid is a pharyngeal tonsil that is subject to inflammation

tonsilitis

75

inflammation of the trachea

tracheitis

76

narrowing of the trachea

tracheostenosis

77

infection of the upper respiratory tract (nose, pharynx, larynx, & trachea), usually the result of a virus

upper respiratory infection (URI)

78

clinical test performed on sputum to identify the presence of bacteria that react to acid, which includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis

acid-fast bacilli smear (AFB)

79

excision of a swollen pharyngeal tonsil, known as an adenoid

adenoidectomy

80

therapeutic drug that inhibits the effects of histamines, which are compounds released by cells that cause bronchial constriction & blood vessel dilation

antihistamine

81

clinical test on arterial blood to identify the levels of oxygen & carbon dioxide

arterial blood gases (ABGs)

82

removal of fluid w/ suction

aspiration

83

physical examination, often w/ the aid of a stethoscope, for listening to sounds w/in the body

auscultation

84

use of a bronchodilating agent to relax the smooth muscles of the airways & stop the bronchial constriction allowing the patient to breathe easier

bronchodilation

85

x-ray image of the bronchi

bronchogram

86

procedure for obtaining an x-ray of the bronchi

bronchography

87

surgical repair of a bronchus

bronchoplasty

88

bronchi are examined w/ a bronchoscope, a modified type of endoscope

bronchoscopy

89

diagnostic imaging of the chest by a computed tomography scanning instrument; used to diagnose respiratory tumors, pleural effusion, pleuritis, & other diseases by providing 3D imaging

chest CT scan

90

x-ray photograph of the thoracic cavity used to diagnose tuberculosis, tumors, & other lung conditions

chest x-ray/chest radiograph (CXR)

91

physician who specializes in the treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, & throat

ear, nose, & throat specialist (ENT)

92

visual examination of a body space w/ the use of an instrument called an endoscope, which has a flexible tube that contains mirrors or a camera & is a noninvasive technique for diagnostic & treatment purposes

endoscopy

93

insertion of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway

endotracheal intubation

94

drug that breaks up mucus & promotes coughing to remove it

expectorant

95

breathing therapy in which a portable spirometer is used by a patient to assist in deep breathing exercises

incentive spirometry

96

surgical removal or excision of the larynx; usually performed as a treatment for laryngeal cancer

laryngectomy

97

surgical puncture & aspiration of fluid from the larynx

laryngocentesis

98

surgical repair of the larynx

laryngoplasty

99

procedure that examines the larynx w/ a laryngoscope

laryngoscopy

100

surgical creation of a permanent opening into the larynx to establish an optional access to outside air

laryngostomy

101

incision into the larynx & trachea

laryngotracheotomy

102

excision of a section or lobe of a lung; usually performed as a treatment for lung cancer

lobectomy

103

noninvasive diagnostic imaging of the body w/ the use of magnetic fields & computer imaging equipment

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

104

technique used by a respiratory therapist or EMT to provide assisted breathing w/ the use of a ventilator, which pushes air into the patient's airway

mechanical ventilation

105

device used to convert a liquid medication to a mist & deliver it to the lungs w/ the aid of a deep inhalation

nebulizer

106

measurement of oxygen levels in the blood, using an instrument called an oximeter; pulse oximeter is a noninvasive procedure w/ an oximeter that is pressed against the fingertip

oximetry

107

surgical puncture & aspiration of fluid from the pleural cavity

pleurocentesis

108

incision of the lung & bronchus

pneumobronchotomy

109

excision of an entire lung; usually performed as a treatment for lung cancer

pneumonectomy

110

x-ray of the blood vessels of the lungs following injection of a contrast medium in an effort to detect pulmonary emboli

pulmonary angiography

111

diagnostic tests performed to determine the cause of lung disease by evaluating lung capacity through the use of spirometry; the tests include tidal volume (TV), which is the amount of air expired after a normal expiration, & vital capacity (VC), which is the amount of air exhaled after maximal expiration

pulmonary