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Flashcards in Career Counseling Deck (39):
1

Career Counseling History

One of the first forms of counseling

People still use the Newspaper as their first information gathering effort on career

Students in primary schooling desire career guidance and career direction becomes more

firm during college and after.

2

Underemployment

Working for a job that you are overqualified for (have more experience or education than necessary)

3

Guide for Occupational Employment

Published by the Department of Labor and lists groups of jobs in 14 areas

4

Compensatory Effect

Workers make up for their shortcomings in jobs

5

Spillover

When a person engages in work related activities during their leisure time

6

Recency Effect

Rater Judgments relying on the most recent performance

7

Leniency/Strictness Bias

Tendency for raters to polarize ratings (no middle range ratings)

8

Central Tendency Bias

Tendency to rate people in the middle range

9

Strong Interest Inventory

Measures interests not abilities.
Holland
Based on the idea that interests prompt job satisfaction

10

Occupational Outlook Handbook

Published by the Department of Labor, Revised every two years, now available online

11

Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)

Published by the Department of Labor, gives jobs a 9 digit code, first 3 digits are occupational category and divisions, middle three stats on data, people, and things, final three alphabetizes titles

12

Dual Career Family

Two incomes from two primary caretakers.
Have a higher income.
Have less leisure time

13

Trait and Factor Theory

Trait-and-Factor Theory – also known as actuarial or matching approach, matches worker and work environment and was developed by Parson’s and Williamson, utilizes testing, matches the client once, doesn’t look at lifespan development

14

Parsons

Father of Vocational Guidance
Wrote the book "Choosing a Vocation"
Created Trait and Factor Theory with Williamson

15

Three Steps to Trait and Factor

Knowledge of self, aptitudes, and interests

Knowledge of jobs and their advantages and disadvantages

Matching the individual with work

16

Williamson

Minnesota Viewpoint
-Utilizes the use of the Minnesota Occupational Rating Scales

17

Anna Roe

Personality approach due to the theory that career satisfies/impacts the unconscious

Utilized fields (job type like service, technology, science, outdoor, etc.) and levels (skill like professional, skilled, unskilled, etc.)

Believed that a parent’s parenting style would impact whether the child would want to work with/be near people or away from people

Utilizes Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – job should meet most urgent need

Also incorporated a view of genetics, needs, education, interests, and intelligence in developing career choice

18

Bordin

Believed the unconscious impacted career development

Difficulties with career choice is seen as a neurotic issue

19

Crites

Researched Career Maturity

20

Tiedman and O’Hara

Decision-Making Theory – person goes through periods of anticipation, implementation, and adjustment

21

Krumboltz

Social Learning Theory based

Incorporates behavioristic model

22

Gelatt

Created the Gelat Decion Model – focused on information which is organized into three systems predictive (probably alternatives), value (preferences for outcomes), and decision (rules and criteria for evaluation) Brill

Utilized a psychoanalytic prospective

23

Murray

Used a personality based theory

24

Ginzberg, Ginsberg, AxeIrad, and Herma

Used a developmental approach
Stages:
Fantasy (birth-11)
Tentative (11-17)
Realistic (17-early 20's)

25

Super

Believed in a self-concept directing career
Career Rainbow

26

Super's Life Rainbow

Growth
Exploration
Establishment
Maintenance
Decline

27

Growth

Super's Life Rainbow

Birth-14 years
Development of self-concept, attitudes, needs and general world of work

28

Exploration

Super's Life Rainbow

15-24 years
Exploration 15-24 "Trying out" through classes, work hobbies. Tentative choice and skill development

29

Establishment
Super's Life Rainbow

25-44 years
Entry-level skill building and stabilization through work experience

30

Maintenance

Super's Life Rainbow

45-64 years
Continual adjustment process to improve position

31

Decline

Super's Life Rainbow

65+ years
Reduced output, prepare for retirement

32

Holland

Self Directed Search
Currently the most popular career theory
Emphasizes personality

33

Self Directed Search

Realistic
Investigative
Artistic
Social
Enterprising
Conventional

34

Realistic

Self Directed Search

Likes to work with animals, tools, or machines; generally avoids social activities like teaching, healing, and informing others;

Has good skills in working with tools, mechanical or electrical drawings, machines, or plants and animals;

Values practical things you can see, touch, and use like plants and animals, tools, equipment, or machines; and

Sees self as practical, mechanical, and realistic.

35

Investigative

Self Directed Search

Likes to study and solve math or science problems; generally avoids leading, selling, or persuading people;

Is good at understanding and solving science and math problems;

Values science; and Sees self as precise, scientific, and intellectual.

36

Artistic

Self Directed Search

Likes to do creative activities like art, drama, crafts, dance, music, or creative writing; generally avoids highly ordered or repetitive activities;

Has good artistic abilities -- in creative writing, drama, crafts, music, or art;

Values the creative arts -- like drama, music, art, or the works of creative writers; and

Sees self as expressive, original, and independent.

37

Social

Self Directed Search

Likes to do things to help people -- like, teaching, nursing, or giving first aid, providing information; generally avoids using machines, tools, or animals to achieve a goal;

Is good at teaching, counseling, nursing, or giving information;

Values helping people and solving social problems; and

Sees self as helpful, friendly, and trustworthy.

38

Enterprising

Self Directed Search

Likes to lead and persuade people, and to sell things and ideas; generally avoids activities that require careful observation and scientific, analytical thinking;

Is good at leading people and selling things or ideas;

Values success in politics, leadership, or business; and

Sees self as energetic, ambitious, and sociable.

39

Conventional

Self Directed Search

Likes to work with numbers, records, or machines in a set, orderly way; generally avoids ambiguous, unstructured activities

Is good at working with written records and numbers in a systematic, orderly way;

Values success in business; and

Sees self as orderly, and good at following a set plan.