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Flashcards in Theories and Theorists Deck (49):


The Father of Psychoanalysis (lying on the couch, focus on the unconscious mind, takes years)



Unconscious primal desires such as sex and food. Present from birth on, but unconscious



Tries to fulfill the Id in realistic ways and is a person’s conscious awareness.

This portion handles judgement, testing, tolerance, planning, etc.



Searches for perfection, is part conscious and part unconscious, punishes bad behavior with guilt feelings


Penis Envy

Women are jealous of men because they don't have a penis


Castration Anxiety

Women feel inferior because of the fact that they were born physically/sexually inferior.


Oedipus and Electra Complexes

Being jealous of one’s same sex parent because they are keeping them from their opposite sex parent.



Client puts feelings that they truly have for someone else in their lives onto their therapist.


Anna O

Freud never met Anna O, but many of his studies were based on her.
The "Talking Cure"


Life Drive/Eros

Drive for sex, thirst, hunger, survival


Death Drive/Thanatos

Drive for anger, destruction, danger


Defense Mechanisms




Not acknowledging that there is a problem



Suppressing a memory until it disappears into the subconscious



Putting your own beliefs or behavior onto someone else



Acting in a way that is not typical for your age



Showing emotion toward someone or something completely unrelated to that which caused the emotion



Making up explanations for something that has happened


Carl Rogers

Unconditional Positive regard, therapist congruence, empathy.

Originally called "Client Centered Counseling" but changed to "Person Centered Counseling" to be less stigmatizing



Adlerian therapy focuses and is based on the individual and focuses on encouragement

Inferiority complex - feelings that one is lacking in an area that can hinder development

Also created birth order


Only Child

Birth Order

Birth is a miracle. Parents have no previous experience. Retains 200% attention from both parents. May become rival of one parent. Can be over-protected and spoiled.

Likes being the center of adult attention. Often has difficulty sharing with siblings and peers. Prefers adult company and adult language.


Oldest Child

Birth Order

Dethroned by next child. Has to learn to share. Parent expectations are usually very high. Often given responsibility and expected to set an example.

May become authoritarian or strict. Feels power is his right. Can become helpful if encouraged. May turn to father after birth of next child.


Second Child

Birth Order

He has a pacemaker. There is always someone ahead.

Is more competitive, wants to overtake older child. May become a rebel or try to outdo everyone. Competition can deteriorate into rivalry.


Middle Child

Birth Order

Is "sandwiched" in. May feel squeezed out of a position of privilege and significance.

May be even-tempered, "take it or leave it" attitude. May have trouble finding a place or become a fighter of injustice.


Youngest Child

Birth Order

Has many mothers and fathers. Older children try to educate him. Never dethroned.

Wants to be bigger than the others. May have huge plans that never work out. Can stay the "baby." Frequently spoiled.


Aaron T. Beck

Father of "Cognitive Therapy" which helps a client overcome difficulties by identifying and
changing dysfunctional thinking, behavior, and emotional response.

-List of errors in cognitions – magical thinking, labeling, all-or-nothing thinking, over generalization, magnification, minimization, etc.


Carl Jung

Founder of "Analytical Psychology" and intro/extroversion personality types

-Complex – pattern of emotions, cognitions, or perceptions that a person unconsciously organizes around a theme that impacts their further views or emotions.

-Collective Unconscious – concept that there are pieces of everyone’s unconscious that are the same, these pieces are how the psyche organizes experiences

-Archetypes – figures in one’s unconscious that are formed by a collection of characteristics and beliefs about that figure (goddess, mother, hero, etc.)


Albert Ellis

Founder of "Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy" REBT, which comes from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and helps a client recognize activating events and irrational beliefs by challanging these beliefs and formulating new beliefs/ideas



• A. (Activating event) Drunk people outside, making some noise.

• B. (irrational Belief) I have about A) They MUST NOT make any noise.

• C. (Consequences of having those beliefs about A) When noisy drunk people pass in the street outside late at night and wake me up. I feel angry. It feels bad. I lie awake feeling angry and upset and don't get back to sleep for a long time.

• D. (Dispute the irrational Beliefs) in B by turning them into questions and answers) WHY shouldn't they make any noise- where is that commandment written in stone? Where is the evidence?  Again, who made you Supreme Ruler of the Universe dictating how people Should or Must act? 

• E. (Effective new thinking)- substitute something rational instead of B) Drunk people are often noisy, but it's no BIG deal. I don’t like it, but I can damn deal with what I don’t like.  Maybe I will touch base with them in the morning (when they are sober).


Viktor Frankl

Survivor of the Holocaust and creator of "Logotherapy", a form of existential analysis

Logotherapy based on the idea that the ultimate goal in a person’s life is to find meaning

Principles: everything has meaning, motivation is to find meaning, free to find meaning

Wrote Man’s Search for Meaning

Believed that how you think about a situation determines how well you survive it, heal, and move on or keep going.


Eric Berne

Founded "Transactional Analysis" which incorporates pieces of psychoanalysis, humanist, and cognitive therapy

Theory of personality involves three ego-states: parent, adult, and child

Principles – people are okay, everyone can think, and everyone can decide their own story/goal/destiny before changes are made

Life Positions – based on view of self and others as “okay” or not


Donald Meichenbaum

Developed Cognitive Behavior Modification which is that behavioral changes are made by one’s self with limited guidance from an outside source

Client must understand how they impact others to be aware of how they think/feel/behave

Less direct than REBT and uses self-instruction (client instructs themselves)



Existential/Experimental form of psychology developed by Fritz Perls, Laura Perls, and Paul Goodman

Focuses on what is happening currently and what is being said currently – very here and now

Empty chair technique – client explores relationships by putting the other person/thing/feeling of the relationship in a chair and having a therapist guided discussion

Goal of therapy is awareness and genuine self

Change comes when a person becomes whole and integrates the parts of themselves that they have disowned

Dreamwork – does not analyze dreams but instead brings them to life and in the here and now then client takes on each part of the dream


B.F. Skinner

Father of Operant Conditioning (based on Thorndike's Law of Effect)
Continuous Reinforcement
Interval Schedules
Ratio Schedules
Radical Behaviorism


Operant Conditioning

Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (i.e. weakened).

Roughly means that changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response. Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior.


Continuous Reinforcement

Operant Conditioning

constant delivery of reinforcement for an action; every
time a specific action was performed the subject instantly and always received a reinforcement. This method is impractical to use, and the reinforced behavior is prone to extinction.


Interval Schedules

Operant Conditioning

Based on the time intervals between reinforcements

*Fixed Interval Schedule (FI) : An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made.

*Variable Interval Schedule (VI) : An operant conditioning principle in which behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement.


Ratio Schedules

Operant Conditioning

Based on the ratio of responses to reinforcements

*Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR) : An operant conditioning principle in which the reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made.

*Variable Ratio Schedule (VR) : An operant conditioning principle in which delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses (ex. slot machines).


Radical Behaviorism

Operant Conditioning

Discover the root of the behavior


Positive Reinforcement

Operant Conditioning

Reward – presenting the subject with something that it likes. E.g. Skinner rewarded his rats with food pellets.


Negative Reinforcement

Operant Conditioning

Reward – in the sense of removing or avoiding some aversive (painful) stimulus. E.g.Skinner's rats learned to press the lever in order to switch off the electric current in the cage.



Operant Conditioning

Imposing an aversive or painful stimulus. E.g. Skinner’s rats were given electric shocks.


Primary Reinforcers

Operant Conditioning

These are stimuli which are naturally reinforcing because they directly satisfy a need. E.g. food, water.


Secondary Reinforcers

Operant Conditioning

These are stimuli, which are reinforcing through their association with a primary reinforcer. I.e. they do not directly satisfy a need but may be the means to do so. E.g. Money! You cannot eat it or drink it but if you have it you can buy whatever you want. So a secondary reinforcer can be just as powerful a motivator as a primary reinforcer.


Ivan Pavlov

1. Before Conditioning:
Unconditioned Stimulus = Unconditioned Response
2. Before Conditioning:
Neutral Stimulus = No Conditioned Response
3. During Conditioning:
Neutral Stimulus + Unconditioned Stimulus = Unconditioned Response
4. After Conditioning:
Conditioned Stimulus = Conditioned Response


John B. Watson

Little Albert Experiment
-Watson conditioned a child to be afraid of a white rat and then did not uncondition the child


William Glasser

Reality or Choice therapy – form of CBT that focuses on realism, responsibility, and right and wrong

-Does not focus on the client’s past or unconscious

-Focuses on problem solving process and here and now issues

-Seperates client from their behaviors


Albert Bandura

Created "Social Learning Theory"

-Conducted Bobo doll experiment where children reacted violently towards a Bobo doll after exposure to violent or aggressive imagery


Phillip Zimbardo

Psychologist and Professor at Stanford University
Had a grant from the the US Office of Naval Research to conduct the experiment.
Experiment ended 6 days in due to extreme emotional trauma.
Participants acted out their roles