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Flashcards in Human Development and Culture Deck (49):

Freud Psychosexual Stages of Development (In Order)

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital



Birth-1 year
Erogenous Zone - Mouth
Consequences of Fixation-
Orally Aggressive (chewing)
Orally Passive (smoking, eating, kissing, oral sex)
Oral Stage Fixation = gullible, passive, immature, or manipulative



1-3 years
Erogenous Zone - Bowel and Bladder Elimination
Consequences of Fixation-
Anal Retentive (Obsessively organized, excessively neat)
Anal Expulsive (reckless, careless, defiant, disorganized, coprophiliac)



3-6 years
Erogenous Zone - Genitalia
Consequences of Fixation-
Oedipus Complex (boys and girls according to Freud)
Electra Complex (girls according to Jung)



Erogenous Zone - Dormant Sexual Feelings
Consequences of Fixation-
Sexual unfulfillment if fixation occurs in this stage



Erogenous Zone - Sexual Interests Mature
Consequences of Fixation-
Frigidity, impotence, unsatisfactory relationships


Erikson Psychosocial Stages of Development (Ages In Order)

Infancy (birth to 18 months)
Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)
Preschool (3 to 5 years)
School Age (6 to 11 years)
Adolescence (12 to 18 years)
Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)
Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
Maturity (65 to death)


Trust vs. Mistrust

Infancy (birth to 18 months)
Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.


Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)
Toilet Training
Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.


Initiative vs. Guilt

Preschool (3 to 5 years)
Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.


Industry vs. Inferiority

School Age (6 to 11 years)
Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.


Identity vs. Role Confusion

Adolescence (12 to 18 years)
Social Relationships
Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.


Intimacy vs. Isolation

Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)
Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.


Generativity vs. Stagnation

Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
Work and Parenthood
Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.


Ego Integrity vs. Despair

Maturity (65 to death)
Reflection on Life
Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.


Erikson Psychosocial Stages of Development (Conflicts In Order)

Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Ego Integrity vs. Despair


Piaget Cognitive Stages of Development (In Order)

Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years)
Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)
Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)
Formal Operational Stage (11+ years)


Sensorimotor Stage

0-2 years
During this first stage, children learn entirely through the
movements they make and the sensations that result. They learn:
-That they exist separately from the objects and people around them
-That they can cause things to happen
-That things continue to exist even when they can't see them


Preoperational Stage

2-7 years
Once children acquire language, they are able to use symbols (such as words or pictures) to represent objects. Their thinking is still very egocentric though -- they assume that everyone else sees things from the same viewpoint as they do.
They are able to understand concepts like counting,
classifying according to similarity, and past-present-future but generally they are still focused primarily on the present and on the concrete, rather than the abstract.


Operational Stage

7-11 years
At this stage, children are able to see things from different points of view and to imagine events that occur outside their own lives. Some organized, logical thought processes are now evident and they are able to:
-Order objects by size, color gradient, etc.
-Understand that if 3 + 4 = 7 then 7 - 4 = 3
-Understand that a red square can belong to both the
'red' category and the 'square' category
-Understand that a short wide cup can hold the same
amount of liquid as a tall thin cup - conservation

*However, thinking still tends to be tied to concrete reality


Formal Operational Stage

11+ Years
Around the onset of puberty, children are able to reason in much more abstract ways and to test hypotheses using systematic logic. There is a much greater focus on possibilities and on ideological issues.


Kohlberg Moral Stages of Development (In Order)

Level I - Preconventional/Premoral
Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation
Stage 2: Naively Egoistic Orientation
Level II - Conventional/Role Conformity
Stage 3: Good boy/Good girl Orientation
Stage 4: Authority and Social Order Maintaining Orientation
Level III - Postconventional/Self Accepted Moral Principals
Stage 5: Contractual/Legalistic Orientation
Stage 6: The Morality of Individual Principals of Conscience


Level I - Preconventional/Premoral

Kohlberg Moral Stages of Development

Moral values reside in external, quasi-physical events, or in bad acts. The child is responsive to rules and evaluative labels, but views them in terms of pleasant or unpleasant consequences of actions, or in terms of the physical power of those who impose the rules.

Contains Stages 1 and 2


Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation

Kohlberg Moral Stages of Development

Egocentric deference to superior power or prestige, or a trouble-avoiding set.

Objective responsibility.


Stage 2: Naively Egoistic Orientation

Kohlberg Moral Stages of Development

Right action is that which is instrumental in satisfying the self's needs and occasionally others'.

Relativism of values to each actor's needs and perspectives.

Naive egalitarianism, orientation to exchange and reciprocity.


Level II - Conventional/Role Conformity

Kohlberg Moral Stages of Development

Moral values reside in performing the right role, in maintaining the conventional order and expectancies of others as a value in its own right.

Contains Stages 3 and 4


Stage 3: Good boy/Good girl Orientation

Kohlberg Moral Stages of Development

Orientation to approval, to pleasing and helping others.

Conformity to stereotypical images of majority or natural role behavior.

Action is evaluated in terms of intentions.


Stage 4: Authority and Social Order Maintaining

Kohlberg Moral Stages of Development

Orientation to "doing duty" and to showing respect for authority and maintaining the given social order or its own sake.

Regard for earned expectations of others.

Differentiates actions out of a sense of obligation to rules from actions for generally "nice" or natural motives.


Level III - Postconventional/Self Accepted Moral

Kohlberg Moral Stages of Development

Morality is defined in terms of conformity to shared standards, rights, or duties apart from supporting authority. The standards conformed to are internal, and action-decisions are based on an inner process of thought and judgment concerning right and wrong.


Stage 5: Contractual/Legalistic Orientation

Kohlberg Moral Stages of Development

Norms of right and wrong are defined in terms of laws or institutionalized rules which seem to have a rational basis.

When conflict arises between individual needs and law or contract, though sympathetic to the former, the individual believes the latter must prevail because of its greater functional rationality for society, the majority will and welfare.


Stage 6: The Morality of Individual Principals of Conscience

Kohlberg Moral Stages of Development

Orientation not only toward existing social rules, but also toward the conscience as a directing agent, mutual trust and respect, and principles of moral choice involving logical universalities and consistency.

Action is controlled by internalized ideals that exert a pressure to act accordingly regardless of the reactions of others in the immediate environment.

If one acts otherwise, self-condemnation and guilt result.


Bowlby Attachment Theory

Attachment behaviors are instinctive for caregiver and infant
-Child has the need to attach to one main caregiver
*Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis

-Happens when the attachment figure is broken or disrupted during the first two years of a child’s life

-Results in long term cognitive, social and emotional difficulties

-i.e. delinquency, depression, reduced intelligence, psychopathology


Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development

Intelligence testing should be based on critical thinking not fact/knowledge memorization

-Scaffolding is how someone teaches – placing support structures to get the learner from point a to point b

-The zone is the range from what a person can do on their own to what they can do with assistance and everything in between


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Pyramid Diagram with needs to be established from the bottom up.

*Physiological - breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion
*Safety - security of the body, employment, resources, morality, the family, health, property
*Love/Belonging - friendship, family, sexual intimacy
*Esteem - self esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others
*Self-Actualization - morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts



Can be defined by race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, gender, sexual orientation, etc.
Can be customs, values, attitudes, beliefs, art, etc shared by a group of people.

Race is based on Genetics

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, religion, or national origin



The study of personal space/interpersonal distance/territoriality



The tendency for those close to one another to be attracted to one another



Behaviors are to be assessed in the culture that the behavior comes from


Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Argues that people will try to reduce inconsistency in their own thoughts and is a piece of the "Balance Theory"



Beliefs that define the rightness or wrongness of a behavior



Ways to describe what is socially accepted in a culture. (ie, what is rude, proper greetings, etc.)



The belief that you use your own culture to measure and assess all other cultures and that a person believes their culture is superior



The process of minority cultures becoming like or adopting pieces of the majority culture



The highest form of acculturation and is when members of the minority culture take on so many aspects of the majority culture that they actually become part of the majority culture.


Monolithic Cultural Perspective

A counselor with his/her perspective would see all persons from a culture as the same



The emotional context that a word provokes



The process of language that makes phrases and sentences form thoughts



Counselors who believe that all individuals are different based on a client's cultural background



Counselors who believe that people are people regardless of their cultural heritage