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Flashcards in Cartilage development Deck (29):
1

Contents - hyaline cartilage

- collagen
- PG
- water
- to resist compressive forces

2

Tissues in a synovial joint

- bone
- cartilage
- joint tissue
- synovial membrane
- synovial fluid
- ligament
- tendon

3

What happens with arrest of physis?

shortening or deformity of limb

4

Differentiate valgus and varus deformity

- valgus = lateral deviation
- varus = medial deviation

5

T/F: it is normal for epiphysis to expand during growth

True

6

Define osteochondrosis

in veterinary, this is a term for a group of conditions of developing cartilage and its supporting bone. example is osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD)

7

What happens in OCD?

detachment of a chondral or osteochondral fragment from the articular surface

8

What is subchondral bone cyst (SBC) an example of?

example of osteochondrosis

9

What is peri-articular fragmentation/ fracture?
Example?

- detachment of a chondral or osteochondral fragment from the peri-articular area
- e.g. fragmentation / fracture of medial coronoid processs of canine elbow (FCP or FCMP)

10

What initiates osteochondrosis?

initiated by a vascular problem in the epiphysis --> failure of normal cartilage to bone succession

11

Examples - osteochondrosis in dogs - 3

- OCD
- FCP = Fragmented Coronoid Process
- UAP = Ununited Anconeal Process
- elbow, shoulder, stifle, tarsus (other posible)

12

Signalment - osteochondrosis

all animals are fast growing, all are young

13

Examples - osteochondrosis in horses - 2

- OCD
- SBC
- stifle, tarsus, MCP, PIP, DIP
- shoulder, elbow, carus

14

Example - osteochondrosis in pigs

OCD especially hip

15

Example - osteochondrosis in broiler chickens

OCD stifle

16

Possible tx - juvenile developmental joint complaints

- depends on presentation
- symptomatic
- conservative
- surgical (open or arthroscopy): encourage removal, encourage repair

17

Prognosis - juvenile developmental joint complaints

- variable
- related to formation of OA
- shoulder forms little OA (good prognosis)

18

Differentiate OA in animals from humans

- humans = disease of ageing/degeneration
- animals = usually secondary to primary predisposing disease, worsened or exacerbated with exercise, can be ageing too but usually secondary.

19

Elbow OA - tx

- symptomatic
- conservative
- sx (open or arthroscopy): fragment removal, encourage repair
- novel tx that change anatomy
- prognosis depends of degree of OA formation (may need salvage procedure)

20

Why does osteochondrosis --> OA?

- irritation
- direct cartilage damage
- incongruency, mechanical incompetence
- cycle of reaction
- often temporarily stabilises in young adult

21

List broad categories of primary joint disease

- DEVELOPMENTAL: HD, osteochondrosis
- DEGENERATION (of a specific structure): canine cruciate disease
- INFECTION (septic arthritis)
- TRAUMA: acute or chronic (performance animals)
- IMMUNE-MEDIATED

22

List some primary joint diseases of dogs

- OCD
- FCP (elbow)
- UAP
- elbow, shoulder, stifle, tarsus (others possible)

23

List some primary joint diseases of horses

- OCD and SBC
- stifle, tarsus, MCP, PIP, DCP (shoulder, elbow, carpus)

24

Describe osteochondrosis presentation

- young, fast growing, large, pure bred
- joint effusion (inconsistent)
- often bilateral
- lameness (variable, on and off not uncommon, related to pain and loss of ROM)
- subclinical disease is possible

25

Prevention - ED

- large genetic component
- large subclinical population (silent carriers)
- use screening system to remove carrier animals
- similar system for hip dysplasia

26

Animals affected by HD and ED

- numerous large (and small) dog breeds
- seen in some cats
- Norwegian Dole ponies

27

When do HD CS tend to start?

in affected breeds from 5 months onwards

28

Typical HD presentation

- puppies of affected breeds from 5mo +
- lameness or gait abnormality, related to pain or mechanical inefficiency
- inability to manage some types of exercise (stairs, car)
- bilateral signs
- instability of the coxofemoral joints and pain on manipulation

29

What is canine elbow dysplasia (ED)?

- osteochondrosis is the primary disease in this SYNDROME
- ED includes:
* OCD
* FCP/ FCMP
* UAP
* secondary OA
= a combination of all/some of these is ED