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Flashcards in Functional anatomy of the cow's foot Deck (10)
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Aetiological theories - sole ulcer

- Loss of laminar suspension around calving
- Loss of fat pad
- Long standing times
- Laminitis and drop/rotated PIII
- Poor foot angle
- Sole over-growth
- Bone exostoses
- Inflammation in a closed compartment
- Soft claws and heel erosion


Sequealae - sole ulcer

Possible answers include:
- Synovitis
- Tenosynovitis
- Heel abscess
- Rupture of DDF insertion on PIII
- Osteitis
- Chronic infection with DD
- Scarring and likely recurrence
- New bone formation on PIII
- Fat necrosis/steatitis
- Deep digital sepsis, leading to claw amputation or culling


White line - aetiological theories

Very little good evidence published:
• Biotin deficiency (Hedges et al 2001)
• Soft claws during high rainfall (Nz cows)
• Loss of fat pad
• Thin soles (Nz cows/Wisconsin zero-grazed sand)
• Over trimming
• Rough, stoney tracks
• Bruising from long standing times (Bell et al 2006)
• Sharp turns on concrete
• Pushing and shoving e.g. backing gate over-use


Sequelae - white line

- Wall ulcers
-Under-run sole or side wall
-Unlikely to produce deep digital sepsis
- Scarring and recurrence


Digital dermatitis - aetiological theories

• Three families of Treponeme, gaining entry through hair follicles


Sequelae - digital dermatitis

- Cross infection
- Chronic infection in deep dermal tissues, which is unresponsive to most antimicrobial treatments
- Interdigital hyperplasia


Toe necrosis - aetiological theories

• Treponemes invading from coronary band in interdigital space
• Treponemes gaining entry through over-trimmed toes


Sequelae - toe necrosis

- Chronic infection and severe under-run
- Heel-first gait
- Stretched tendons
- Cross-infections


Aetiological theories - foul

• Fusobacterium necrophorum biotypes A, B and AB (ubiquitous)
• Ingress through macerated skin and/or wounds in the interdigital space


Sequelae - foot foul

- Interdigital hyperplasia
- Axial wall and sole under-run (like sheep with scald/foot rot)
- Superfoul – term usually reserved for peracute cases but epidemics can evolve to involved mixed bacterial infection, leading to cases of SF
- Superfoul cases are usually shot on farm