Production animal lameness 3 - PORCINE AND OVINE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Production animal lameness 3 - PORCINE AND OVINE Deck (34):
1

Aetiology - porcine arthritis

- rarer in outdoor pigs
- sporadic opportunist infection in individuals (E.coli, Staphs, Streps) through wounds
- Group outbreaks (Strep suis type 14 - via tonsils)

2

Presentation - arthritis in piglets

- 2d weaning
- can't stand, dog sitting
- enlarged joints
- death, starved, lai dupon
- may have meningitis CS

3

Dx - arthritis in piglets

Bacteriology - from discharge or PME

4

Tx - arthritis in iglets

* Lincomycin
- penicillin
- ampicillin
- ketoprogen
- euthanasia (if no respnse)
- all ABs above are licensed

5

Causes - lameness in growers

- injury, fractures
- osteochondrosis dessicans
- patothenic acid def (rare)
- ionophore toxiticity (rare)
- infectious: Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, Mycoplasma hypopnuemoniae or Hyorrhinis polyarthritis (and pneumonia), Erysipelas (zoonosis, skin lesions)

6

Dx - lameness in growers

- hx
- PE
- PM
- paired serology

7

Tx - lameness in gorwers

Infectious causes: tiamulin, lincomysin, tylosin

8

What % of sow culls are d/t lameness?

30%

9

Types of lameness in adults

- Physical
- infectious
- Septic laminitis

10

Outline physical lameness in adult pigs

- Cartilaginous pathlogy (osteochondrosis, osteochondritis, dyschondroplasia, or DJD)
- bony pathology --> weakness and fracture (osteomalacia)

11

Outline infectious arthritis in adult pigs

- Erysipelas
- Mycoplasma sp

12

What is septic laminitis in adult pigs?

= 'bush foot' d/t bacterial infection. treat with lincomycin and NSAIDs. Similar to white line abscess in cattle.

13

What are the 6 main lesions causing lamenes in sheep?

* scald/ strip
* footrot
* Contagious ovine digital dermaititis (CODD)
- shelly hoof
- toe granuloma
- abscess

14

What is CODD?

= Contagious Ovine Digital Dermatitis
- similar to DD in cattle

15

How many sheep are lame?

10% UK flock

16

What is scald caused by?

primarily caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum which is in faeces i.e. ubiquitus and usually Dichelobacter nodosus

17

What is essential to cause footrot?

Dichelobacter nodosus

18

What causes CODD?

The same treponemes (bacteria) that cause bovine DD

19

Aetiology - shelly hoof and toe abscess

Poorly understood

20

Aetiology - toe granuloma

Largely caused by farmers and vets (overtrimming)

21

Footrot - control

- manage footrot and scald as one disease
- most important: early action, PN ABs and topical spray, NO trimming
- if possible, separate sheep lame with footrot or scald

22

Outline routine foot trimming for sheep

- probably unnecessary on many farms
- shouldn't be art of footrot control programme
- can lead to permanent damage to the shape of the foot
- even sheep with overgrown feet don't need foot trimming unless it is affecting their ability to walk

23

What determines whether scald will progress to footrot?

- whether D. nodosus is on the farm
- virulence and dose of D. nodosus
- sheep susceptibility
- whether sheep are tx promptly before separation of hoof horn occurs

24

Describe D. nodosus

- present on >90% sheep farms
- lives for 7-10d on pasture (warm, moist)
- lives up to 6 wks in hoof clippings
- main reservoir = infected sheep

25

Outline approach to a group of sheep with some lame

- watch 2x week
- trim just enough for diagnosis
- dispose of clippings
- treat
- record (for culling/selection)

26

Tx - footrot

- OTC spray (clean foot)
- Long-acting PN AB (OTC or amoxicillin)
- allow sheep to stand on clean concrete
- clean up area
- ideally isolate sheep for 14d

27

Prognosis - footrot

- 90% recover in 5d
- if recovered after 14d, return to flock
- in not then retreat

28

Tx - scald (ewes, lambs, group outbreaks)

- ewes - as footrot
- lambs (OTC spray, stand in clean area, re-spray in 5d if necessary)
- group outbreaks: footbath, turnout to clean field, re-treat sheep still lame after 5d

29

Presentation - scald - 2

- pale white skin
- characteristic smell

30

When should you cull lame sheep?

- if still lame after 2 AB tx
- if 2 episodes of lameness
- if mishaped claws

31

What chemicals are used for footbathing?

- 10% ZnSo4
- 3% formalin (most common)
- NOT CuSO4 (risk of toxicity if sheep drink it)

32

Method - footbathing

- stand sheep in Zn for > 2 minutes
- stand sheep for 1 hour after
- turn into a field rested for >15 d

33

What is footvax?

= vaccine containing inactivated Bacteroides nodosus
- vaccinate before high risk periods (usually Autumn/ Spring)
- primary = twice, 6 wks apart
- boost 6 monthly (could use every 4-5 months)
- include all sheep (incl. rams)
- CARE: risk of self-injection (MAY loose finger)

34

Tx - CODD

- Tilmicosin (Micotil) = a macrolide AB
- vet administration only
- footbath with lincomycin (lincosamide) or tylosin (macrolide) (only instance to use AB footbath)