Flashcards in Diagnostic imaging - the equine foot Deck (24)
How much force does the TL of a horse experience at walk, trot and gallopp?
- walk: 1/2 times
- trot: 1 times
- gallopp: 2.5 times BWt
What proportion of TL lameness is in the foot?
T/F: it is difficult to relate pain to specific structures by direct localisation, palpation or manipulation
What is another name for radiograph?
summation images (they are a 2D image of a 3D structure)
What changes can be seen radiographically?
- tissue density
What degree of mineralisation is required until it is seen on radiographs?
30-50% change in mineralisation
What are the 7 main orthopaedic diseases?
- navicular disease
Other names for OA
- degenerative joint disease
What happens to the joint in OA?
- inflamed synovium
- reduced viscosity of synovial fluid
- fibrillated/ destroyed cartilage
- bone sclerosis
- frayed, cracked meniscus
- thickened meniscus
CS - arthritis in horses -
- severe joint effusion of tibiotarsal joint (aka bog spavin)
- high ringbone (OA of the pastern joint, this is because there is a small synovial compartment, you don't get swelling but instead new bone formation)
What is laminitis?
systemic disease that manifests in the foot, mostly an endocrine disease
What is navicular syndrome?
- aka palmar foot syndrome
- where one structure in palmar aspect of foot is affected and causes pain
What are radiographic signs of OA?
- SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE: joint effusion, osteophytes
- ARTICULAR CARTILAGE: narrowing joint space (can also have widening)
- SUBCHONDRAL BONE: sclerosis/ lucency
Dx - OA
- affected strucutres (high/low motion joint)
- type of disease (primary, secondary, traumatic, developmental)
- how advanced is disease (early versus late)
What affects prognosis of OA?
- structures affected
- type of disease
- how advanced the disease is
Tx options - OA
- strategic analgesia
- joint supplements
- novel tx concepts
- salvage procedures
- exercise modification/ physio
How do corticosteroids help tx OA?
- stops cell membrane phospholipid conversion into AA
How do NSAIDs help tx OA?
- stops AA conversion into prostaglandins and thromboxanes
What are the main inflammatory mediators in OA?
Outline nuclear scintigraphy
- select a molecule of target tissue (phosphonates for bone)
- combine with radioactive isotope (technetium 99m)
- inject into patient
- detect radioactivity
Indications -nuclear scintigraphy - horses
- acute severe lameness
- proximal limb/ back/ neck/ head (unblockable areas)
- multiple site problems
- unruly horse
- the puzzling case
What is a core lesion?
haemorrhage and GT causing a tendinopathy or desmopathy outside of the foot
a pathology of ligament