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Flashcards in Diagnostic imaging - the equine foot Deck (24)
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1

How much force does the TL of a horse experience at walk, trot and gallopp?

- walk: 1/2 times
- trot: 1 times
- gallopp: 2.5 times BWt

2

What proportion of TL lameness is in the foot?

80%

3

T/F: it is difficult to relate pain to specific structures by direct localisation, palpation or manipulation

True

4

What is another name for radiograph?

summation images (they are a 2D image of a 3D structure)

5

What changes can be seen radiographically?

- tissue density
- size
- shape
- outline
- position

6

What degree of mineralisation is required until it is seen on radiographs?

30-50% change in mineralisation

7

What are the 7 main orthopaedic diseases?

- OA
- OCD
- fractures
- tendonitis
- navicular disease
- wounds
- laminitis

8

Other names for OA

- arthritis
- arthrosis
- osteoarthrosis
- degenerative joint disease

9

What happens to the joint in OA?

- inflamed synovium
- reduced viscosity of synovial fluid
- fibrillated/ destroyed cartilage
- osteophytes
- bone sclerosis
- frayed, cracked meniscus
- thickened meniscus

10

CS - arthritis in horses -

- severe joint effusion of tibiotarsal joint (aka bog spavin)
- high ringbone (OA of the pastern joint, this is because there is a small synovial compartment, you don't get swelling but instead new bone formation)

11

What is laminitis?

systemic disease that manifests in the foot, mostly an endocrine disease

12

What is navicular syndrome?

- aka palmar foot syndrome
- where one structure in palmar aspect of foot is affected and causes pain

13

What are radiographic signs of OA?

- SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE: joint effusion, osteophytes
- ARTICULAR CARTILAGE: narrowing joint space (can also have widening)
- SUBCHONDRAL BONE: sclerosis/ lucency

14

Dx - OA

- affected strucutres (high/low motion joint)
- type of disease (primary, secondary, traumatic, developmental)
- how advanced is disease (early versus late)

15

What affects prognosis of OA?

- structures affected
- type of disease
- how advanced the disease is

16

Tx options - OA

- strategic analgesia
- joint supplements
- novel tx concepts
- salvage procedures
- exercise modification/ physio

17

How do corticosteroids help tx OA?

= anti-inflammatory
- stops cell membrane phospholipid conversion into AA

18

How do NSAIDs help tx OA?

= anti-inflammatory
- stops AA conversion into prostaglandins and thromboxanes

19

What are the main inflammatory mediators in OA?

- leukotrienes
- prostaglandins
- thromboxanes

20

Outline nuclear scintigraphy

- select a molecule of target tissue (phosphonates for bone)
- combine with radioactive isotope (technetium 99m)
- inject into patient
- detect radioactivity

21

Indications -nuclear scintigraphy - horses

- inflammation
- pulmonary
- GIT
- vascular
- renal
- reproduction
EXAMPLES:
- acute severe lameness
- proximal limb/ back/ neck/ head (unblockable areas)
- multiple site problems
- unruly horse
- the puzzling case
- others

22

What is a core lesion?

haemorrhage and GT causing a tendinopathy or desmopathy outside of the foot

23

Define desmopathy

a pathology of ligament

24

Non-imaging techniques of examination of horse hoof

- inspect hoof wall and sole
- palpate at coronary band
- hoof testers and percussion
- diagnostic analgesia