Cartilage Development and Joint Dx (Pead) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cartilage Development and Joint Dx (Pead) Deck (23):

What is a "joint" composed of? (tissue wise)

- bone
- cartilage
- joint capsule
- ynovial membrane
- synovial fluid
- ligaent
- tendon


What zones does the end of a juvenile long bone consist of?

- metaphysis
- physis (growth plate)
- epiphysis (covered in cartilage)
> cancellous bone to spread the load


Wht may be seen at the end of an adult longn bone?

" suture line" where growth plate closed (not a physis)


Why do limb deviations result?

- damage to the physis, eg.
> ridge within joint
> bridging of bone across the physis


What are lateral and medial deviations of the limbs referred to as?

- valgus deformity = lateral deviation of the distal limb
- varus deformity = medial


Whicch way will the limb deviate if physis is demaged?

Towards the side of damae


Is it normal for the epiphysis to expand during growth?



What is "osteochondrosis"? eg?

- term for a group of conditiions affecting the developing cartilage and its supporting bone
- eg.
> OCD (osteochondrosis dessicans)
> Subchondral bone cyts (SBC)
> Peri-aritcular fx/fragmentation
- NB. human medical textbooks this refers to a more specific dz


Most common eg. of peri-articular fragmentation/fx?

- detachment of chondral or oseteochondral fragment fromt he peri-aritcular area
- eg. canine elbow (frag/fx of MEDAL CORONOID PROCESS) FCP/FCMP


What is osteochondrosis initiated by?

- vascular problem in the epiphysis
- failure of normal cartilage bone succession


Outline the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis dessicans

- section of wedge of epiphysis does not turn into bone, emain cartilagenous
- fissures develop
- wedge stuck down by fibrous repair tissue
- OR break off and float into joint capsule, causing abnormal wear elsewhere in the joint


How does a subchondral bone cyst form?

- excessive cartilage in one section of the bone
- beins ossifying again
- isolated area of cartilage bubble under the surface (weak spot) changes loading of the joint, might be painful, unstable etc.
> most common horses


Where is osteochondrosis commonly seen?

> dogs
- OCD, FCP fragmented choronoid proces), UAP (ununited anconeal process)
- esp. elbow shoulder, stifle, tarsus + otehrs
> Horses
- stifle, tarsus, MCP, PIP, DIP, shoulder, elbow, carpus
> pigs
- OCD esp hip
> broiler chickens
- OCD stifle
> all fast growing, high performance, YOUNG patients


Presentation of ocd?

+- joint effusion
- often bilateral
- - varibale lameness
- subclinical dz possible
- large, young, fast growing, purebred
- excericse intolerant
- partially responsive to analgesia
- partially responsive to rest
- Pain on MANIPULATION of affected joint


First plan of action for investigating joint dz?

- radiographs


Tx of joint OCD? (juvenile,d evelopmental dz)

> symptomatic
> conservative
> surgical
- open
- arthroscopy
- fragment removal
- encourage repair (fibrocartilage, rarely get hyaline cartilage back)
> generally prognosis variable
- related to formation OA
- shoulder forms little OA (so prognosis is good) cf. elbow (prognosis poor)


How does OA differ in animals to humans?

> humans commonly aging process
> animals 2* to 1* predisposing disease
- worsened or exacerbate by age


How can fragented medial choronoid process by visualised?

- NEeds CT


Tx elbow elbow medial choronoid process fragent?

> symptomatic
> conservative
> surigcal
- open
- arthroscopy
- fragment removal
- encourage repair
> novel tx that change anatomy
> prognosis complicated
- depends on degree of OA
- may need salvage (salvage procedure/joint replacement)


What must you be careful of when manipulating joints?

- holding bones t oo tightly
- panosteitis can be confused for joint pain


How does osteochondrosis lead to OA?

- irritation
- direct cartilage damage
- incongruency, mechanical incompetence
- cycle of reaction
- often temporarily stabilises in young adult


Prog for OCD/O in a young animal?

Not likly to excercsie maximally but otherwise life prog good! Dont be too negativve with owners.


What is the purpose of hyaline cartilage?

- interface between bones at a synovial joint
- complex matrix of: collage, proeoglycans, water
- resists compressive forces
- resident cells (chondrocytes) responsible for turnover (breakdown and synthesis of matrix)