Flashcards in Farm Animal Lameness Pigs and Sheep Deck (36):
Aetiology of arthritis in piglets?
- rarer outdoors
> individual infections: sporadic opportunist infection (E. COli, Staph and strep) through wounds (tail, teeth, skin, navel)
> group outbreaks: Strep suis type 14 via tonsils
Presentation of arthritis in piglets
2d - weanling
- cant stand, dog sitting
- enlarged joints
- death (starved/laid on)
Dx of arthritis in piglets
- discharge from wounds or PM samples
Tx arthritis in piglets
- euthanasia if no response
Lameness causes in growers
- injury (fx)
- osteochondrosis dessicans
- pantothenic acid deficiency (rare)
- ionophore toxicity (rare)
- mycoplasma hyosynoviae
- mycoplasma hyopneumonia or hyorhinis polyarthritis (and pneumonia)
- erisypelas (zoonotic: note skin lesions)
Dx cause of lameness in growers
- paired serology
Tx for infectious lameness in growers
What proportion of sows are culled d/t lameness?
Main causes of lameness in sows?
> physical lamenss
- cartilaginous pathology (osteochondrosis, osteochondritis, dyschondroplasia, degenerative joint disease (DJD))
- bony pathology -> weakness and fracture (osteomalacia)
- mycoplasma spp.
> septic laminits
-"bush foot" d/t bacterial infection
- tx: lincomycin and NSAIDs
How can lameness causes be identified in adult sows?
> inspect foot
- NAD on PE?
- visable abnormalities, pig off food / febrile, swellings?
> sudden or chronic onset?
Causes of sudden onset lameness in sows with NAD on PE. Most likely? *
- acute leg weakness OCD*
- back muscle necorisis
- broken back
- calcium phosphorus deficiency
- muscle tear
- muscular dystrophy
- trauma *
Causes of chronic onset lameness in sows with NAD on PE. Most likely? *
- myscoplasma arthritis*
- leg weakness OCD*
Causes of sudden onset lameness in sows with abnormalities on PE (swelling/fever/off food). Most likely? *
- back muscle necrosis
- erisypelis *
- streptococcal infecton *
- vascular dz
Causes of chronic onset lameness in sows with abnormalities on PE (swelling/fever/off food). Most likely? *
- bush foot*
- Glassers disease*
- Mycoplasma arthritis*
- Vascular disease
6 lesions causing sheep lameness
> scald (70%)
= interdigital dermatitis
- red, wet interdigital space, +- white grey scum, loss of hair
> foot rot (30%)
- separation of horn from live tissue, starts between claws, foul smell, grey oozing puss
> CODD (25%)
= contagious ovine digital dermatitis
- loss of hair above coronary band, separation of hoof and coronet, blood + grey scum, not smelly, hoof can detach completely
> shelly hoof (10%)
= white line degeneration
- some separation of horn from wall
- pocket impacted with soil
- half moon appearance
> foot abscess (10%)
- sheep v lame
- swelling of skin/pus above coroncary band
- separation of white line/penetration with stone/thorn may be vis
> toe granuloma (10%)
- strawberry like growth @ toe
- sometimes hidden by overgrown horn
- bleeds when handled
What % of the UK flock is affected by lameness?
What pathogen causes scald? Foot rot?
- Fusobacterium necrophorum (in feaces, ubitquitous)
- usually also Dichelobacter nodosus (required for 'foot rot')
What pathogen causes CODD?
Pathogenesis of shelly hoof and toe abscess?
Cause of toe granuloma?
Farmers and vets!!
- manage and tx footrot and scald as one disease
- most important: early Tx with parenteral Abx + topical spray
- NO foot trimming
- separate affected sheep out
Is routine foot trimming usually necessary?
- probably not many farm
- should NOT be part of footrot control
- can -> permenenant damage to shape of foot
- unless affected ability to walk, even seemingly 'overgrown' feet do not need trimming
What is the risk of scald progressing to foot rot dependant on?
- D. nodosus present on farm?
- virulence and dose of D. nodosus
- susceptibility of sheep
- Prompt tx before separation of the hoof horn?
Is Dichelobacter nodosus commonly present on farm?
Yes >90% UK sheep farms
What conditions does Dichelobacter nodosus thrive in? How long can it survive on pasture?
- warm moist conditions
- 7-10d on pasture
- 6 weeks in hoof clippings
Main reservoir of D. nodosus?
Outline the approach to a group with some lame sheep
- watch group walking 2x weekly
- trim just enough for dx
- DISPOSE of clippings
- record for culling/breeding selection
Tx of footrot
- oxytet spray (clean foot first)
- long acting parenteral ABx (oxytet, amoxicillin)
- allow sheep to stand on clean concrete
- clean up after!!!!
- ideally isolate sheep for 14d
90% recover in 5d
- if recovered by 2 weeks return to flock, otherwise keep separate and continue treating
Tx of scald? Ewes and lambs?
- ewes = footroot
- lambs: oxytet spray, stand in clean area, respray q5d if necessary
Tx of group outbreaks of scald?
- turnout into clean field
- re-tx sheep still lame after 5d
> cull IF
- still lame after 2 Abx tx
- 2 episodes of lamenss
- misshapen claws
What footbaths are available for tx of scald in sheep?
> 10% ZnSO4
> 3% formalin
* NOT CuSO4
- stand for >2mins
- stand for 1hr post dip
- turn into a field rested for >14d
What preventative tx is available for scald?
- vax before high risk periods (autumn/spring)
- 1* course: 2x 6 weeks apart
- boost q6months (could use every 4-5months)
- include ALL Sheep inc rams
*care risk of self injection -> severe pain and swelling*
What equivalent disease in sheep causes bovine digital dermatitis? What pathogen?
CODD (contagious ovine digital dermatitis)
Tx treponemes CODD?
- Tilmicosin (micotil, vet only)
- Footbath with lincomycin or tylosin