Flashcards in Case Studies (Buxton/Habal) Deck (34)
What organism causes strep throat?
Staph pyogenes (GAS)
Which antibiotics are used for the treatment of Strep throat?
penicillin (give upset stomach)
What is the mechanism of action for amoxicillin?
inhibit transpeptidase which inhibits cell wall synthesis
What symptoms might be present with strep throat?
Which organisms cause otitis media?
resistant Strep pneumo
Why are H. flu and Moraxella resistant to amoxicillin?
they produce b lactamase
Why would Clavulanate be paired with amoxicillin?
it is a b-lactamase inhibitor
Which organism would cause a post-surgical skin infection?
Which antibiotics are often used to treat Staph and Strep?
Nafcillin (anti Staph)
1st/2nd generation cephalosporin
1st- Cefazolin - IV
2nd - Cefuroxime - IV
What is the mechanism of action of Nafcillin and cephalosporins?
Cell wall inhibitors that act by binding to D-ala-D-ala bonds to prevent cross linking
Is there antibiotic resistance with Nafcillin and cephalosporin? mechanism:
Yes, altered PBPs
Diagnsosis of acute uncomplicated cystitis. What is the most likely cause?
Which drugs could be used to treat UTIs?
1st/2nd gen cephalosporin:
What is mechanism of action for cephalosporins TMP/SMX, Cipro or ampicillin?
cell wall synthesis inhibitors
inhibits DNA gyrase (?)
If pregnant, which drugs would you not give for UTI?
Which organisms cause native valve endocarditis?
What are some empiric therapies for Staph Aureus, Staph Epiderminid, or Strep Viridans
What is the most likely definitive treatment for a viridans group streptococci that is susceptible to all tested antibiotics?
Penicillin G + Gentamycin (for anaerobic gram negative)
Developed community acquired bacterial pneumonia. What are the top 6 causes?
What are some likely empiric regimens for CA bacterial pneumonia?
ceftriaxone + azithromycin (or another macrolide...clarithromycin, erythromycin )
How does ceftriaxone and azithromycin work?
Ceftriaxone - inhibits cell wall synthesis
Macrolides - inhibit protein synthesis
How is antibiotic resistance determined in the lab?
AGAR disc diffusion
Student develops sepsis from ruptured appendix. Which organism could be involved?
Which antibiotics are commonly used when you need a broad spectrum antibiotic against gram positive and gram negative aerobes and anaerobic bacteria?
Woman develops PID. What are the most common organisms causing PID?
Which antibiotics are most likely used to treat PID?
3rd gen cephalosporin
- ceftriaxone (for N gonorrhea or bacteroides
Tetracycline/doxycycline (for C. trachomatis)
Man acquired HA pneumonia. MRSA was isolated from aspirated sputum. Which drug could be used to treat this patient?
What is the mechanism of antibiotic resistance for MRSA?
Man developed sepsis after hospitalization for prostate cancer surgery. Cultures grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Is this CA or HA acquired infection?
HA Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What are the drugs that could be used for a HA Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
Carbapenums, or piperacillin + tazobactum
3rd/4th gen cephalosporin
What drug should not be used if the patient has kidney disease?
fluoroquinolones (inhibit DNA gyrase)
What drug would be used if he was allergic to penicillin?
Inmate developed fever, weakness chills, weight loss and cough productive bloody sputum. What is the most likely etiology?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)