Cell Adaptation Flashcards Preview

CMBM 3 > Cell Adaptation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Adaptation Deck (39)
1

Define etiology.

Cause of disease

2

Development of disease.

Pathogenesis

3

Label or name disease

Diagnosis

4

Prediction

Prognosis

5

Damage; length of disability

Morbidity

6

Who is the father of pathology?

Virchow

7

What two things do cells do when they are exposed to stress?

adapt or die

8

Define atrophy

cell shrinkage

9

Define hypertrophy

increase in size of cells and/or the organ (e.g. heart)

10

Define hyperplasia

increase in number of cells in any organ/tissue; division

11

What are three etiologies of hyperplasia?

physiologic
compensatory (trauma)
pathologic

12

Prolonged hormonal stimulation can lead to?

BPH, fibroids

13

Viral infection by papillomavirus are example of what type of hyperplasia?

pathologic hyperplasia

14

List two pathogenesis causes of hypertrophy.

increased functional demand
hormonal stimulation (eg. thyroxin - thyroid medicine)

15

Low thyroid hormone causes (increase/decrease) in size of heart.

decrease

16

Shrinkage in the size of cells by loss of structural components caused by?

decreased work load
loss of innervation
diminished blood supply (vascular disease)
inadequate nutrition
loss of endocrine stimulation

17

Define metaplasia.

Reversible change in which one adult epithelial type is replaced by another adult type of epithelium. (columnar to squamous)

18

Define dysplasia.

Cells have undergone atypical cytological alterations involving cell size, shape and orientation.

19

Define neoplasia.

uncontrolled growth (eg. squamous cell carcinoma) [image]

20

An example of compensatory hyperplasia due to trauma is?

callus

21

What is the human life expectancy?

105 years

22

Name two main factors that determine aging.

Genetic factors
environmental factors

23

Chaperone ubiquitin-protease

phagocytize incorrectly folded protein

24

Exposure to exogenous materials can accentuate aging by what process?

Intracellular accumulations exogenous materials

25

Define anthracosis.

carbon pigment in lung

26

Where do carbon pigments circulate to?

hilar lymph nodes

27

List 6 examples of intracellular accumulations.

lipofuscin
melanin
iron
calcium
fat
bilirubin

28

Chronic cor pulmonale is characterized by

dilated and hypertrophied ventricle

29

Multiple transfusions lead to what type of deposition?

hemosiderin deposition

30

Where does hemosiderin deposition occur?

kupfer cells of the liver

31

What is hemosiderosis?

excess deposits of iron

32

What controls calcium levels?

parathyroid

33

Differentiate between metastatic calcification and dystrophic calcification.

Metastic - occurs in normal tissue
Dystrophic - occurs in dead or injured tissue

34

Liver will undergo a fatty metamorphisis due to:

fatty meal
alcoholism
obesity

35

What is bilirubin an accumulation of? due to?

bile salt due to occlusion of hepatic duct or common bile duct

36

A patient with chronic cough and a 2 pack smoker for the past 30 years. Biopsy shows squamous metaplasia. What is the most appropriate interpretation?

irritant effect (metaplasia)

(cancer - neoplasia)

37

Man in involved in MVA. Left femoral artery is lacerated. Hematocrit is 12%. Which of the following tissues is most likely to withstand the impact?

skeletal muscle

38

What is hematocrit?

volume of RBCs in blood

39

End of normal menstrual cycle, the endometrium sloughs. Exam shows cellular fragmentation. What triggers upregulation of BCL2 in these endometrial cells?

decreased estrogen