Flashcards in Micronutrients Deck (58)
How are micronutrients categorized?
Water and salts
6 functions of Ca
regulation of intracellular enzymes
growth of bones and teeth
messenger function; hormone-receptor
Absorption of Ca promoted by:
Absorption of Ca2+ prohibited by:
Steatorrhea (soap) [fatty diarrhea]
Metal- phosphates are extremely (soluble/insoluble)
What is seen in calcium deficiencies?
osteomalacia (adult rickets)
What prevents rickets?
What is recommended consumption of Ca2+?
women and adolescents need slightly more
What form of phosphorous is absorbed?
Where is the vast majority of phosphate found?
85% bones and teeth
What is recommended intake of phosporous?
Excessive intake of phosphorous promotes excretion of what mineral?
What is the function of magnesium?
binds nucleic acids
muscle relaxation after contractions
What are the food sources of magnesium?
vegetables, nuts, legumes
What is the RDA of magnesium?
400 mg/day (male) 300 mg/day (female)
What symptoms are seen with deficiency of Mg? excess?
hypertension, vascular disease, preeclampsia
Alcoholics - DTs, tremors
Excess - anaesthetic effects, diarrhea
How is sulfur taken up by the body?
What are some functions of sulfur?
source of electrons,
transfer groups Acetyl Coa
disulfide bonds, protein folding
Key metals involved in enzymatic activities and protein structure
Fe, Zn, Selenium, iodine Cu
What is the key role of Iron?
What is the role of Zinc?
protein interacting with DNA "Zinc fingers" (gene regulation)
Is Zinc redox active?
What increases absorption of zinc? How is it bound?
binding of His, Cys (in various combinations) and nucleotides
What helps with Zn transfer into blood?
Where is Zn stored?
muscle & bone
What are the Zn requirements?
M- 11 mg/day W 8mg/day
What are symptoms of Zn deficiency?
skin lesions, late onset of secondary sex characteristics, growth reduction, loss of appetite, genetic deficiiencies
What does Zn malabsorption lead to?
Too much Zn?
dizziness, nausea, gastric distress
can reduce Cu absorption
implicated in Alzheimer's
can lower HDLs
What are Cu RDA?
What is Cu used for?
What other metal relies on Cu for uptake? ****
What impairs Cu uptake?
What is seen with Cu deficiencies?
anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, osteoporosis
What will excess Cu result in?
tremors, weakness, anorexia
What disease can impair absorption of nutrients?
Describe Wilson's disease?
excess Cu and builds up leading to brain damage, involuntary movements
What is a sign of Wilson's
gold rings in corneas
What is iodine essential for?
thyroid hormones affecting development, growth, metabolism
What is RDA for iodine?
Deficiency of iodine will stimulate what disease?
goiter - enlarged thyroid
What is RDA for selenium?
Deficiency of selenium can lead to?
cardiac failure, liver disease, cancer, atherosclerosis, hair loss
An excess of selenium (>400 ug/day) can lead to?
peripheral neuropathy, nausea, diarrhea, dermatitis, hair loss, nail deformities
What is selenium used for?
enzyme cofactor for antioxidant defense
thyroid hormone and insulin function
regulation of cell growth
What are some other metals needed?
Manganese, molybedium, chromium, cobalt, nickel
Probably required metals?
possibly required metals?
Rd, ? Rb - Rubidium
V - Vanadium
F - Fluorine
What are the major extracellular fluids (ECF) solutes?
What are the major intracellular fluid solutes?
organic phosphate esters (ATP, creatine phosphate, phospholipid)
What are miliequivalents?
milliequivalents = milliMolar when 1 ionizable group
mEQ = 2x mMolar is there are 2 charges
If 3+, more pH dependent
What are the main macrominerals?
What does excess sodium lead to?
The net activity of GI tract down to jejunum is secrection of water and electrolytes. If you vomit you?
The net activity from jejunum to colon in reabsorption so if you have diarrheas you can lose?
What problems exist with excess or deficiency of water and potassium?
K:Na ration linked to hypertension
Deficiency: heart arrhythmia, muscle weakness, increased blood pH (alkalosis)
What are four other macro minerals besides water, Na, K?